CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute
Dr.P Thanikaivelan
Principal Scientist
Academic Qualifications
    Ph.D. Anna University (2003)
Contact Details
Dr.P Thanikaivelan
Principal Scientist
Head, Honorary Faculty- Anna University
Advanced Materials Laboratory
CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute
Adyar, Chennai – 600 020
e-mail: thanik@clri.res.in, thanik8@yahoo.com,
Phone:91 44 24910953


Degrees Earned

  • Bachelor of Technology (Leather) – 1997
  • Master of Technology (Leather) – 1999
  • Doctorate (Leather) – 2003 – All from AC College of Technology, Anna University

Post Doctoral Fellowships

  • BOYSCAST Fellow, Texas Tech University, Lubbock (2005-06)
  • Fulbright-Nehru Senior Research Fellow, Rice University, Houston (2010-11)

Topic of PhD Thesis

  • Approach Towards Zero Discharge Tanning Methods
    Two patents and eight papers have been brought out of this work

Topic of M.Tech Thesis

  • Development of a Leather Processing Method in Narrow pH Profile

Current Research Interests

  • Development of new and advanced nano, bio and composite materials

  • Environmental science and technology relevant to leather and allied industries

  • Biotechnological applications to leather and related industries

  • Clean technologies and solid waste management

  • Applied chemistry/sciences in the area of leather and allied industries

  • Apparel and accessories research and development

Visits Abroad

  • Texas Tech University, Lubbock, USA from April 2005 to March 2006 under BOYSCAST fellowship sponsored by Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India.
  • Tours, France from March 15-19, 2009 to attend 1st International Conference on Multifunctional, Hybrid and Nanomaterial
  • Singapore from June 28 – July 3, 2009 to attend 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT 2009)   
  • Beijing, China from 11-14 Oct 2009 to attend 30th IULTCS Congress 
  • Sao Carlos, Brazil from 1-9 Feb 2010 to visit University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos under DST sponsored Indo-Brazil joint research project  
  • Rice University, Houston, USA from August 2010 to April 2011 under Fulbright-Nehru Senior Research Fellowship sponsored by United States-India Educational Foundation (USIEF), New Delhi and Government of India
  • Valencia, Spain from 27-30 Sep, 2011 to attend 31st IULTCS Congress
  • Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 8 Dec 2011 to 8 Jan 2012 to carry out Twinning project at LIDI
Siginificient Contribution
Leather processing involves cleaning of the skins or hides to remove unwanted materials, followed by preparing the stock for chrome tanning and subsequently tanning using basic chromium sulphate to stabilise the raw material against microbial degradation. The conventional cleaning processes (liming-reliming processes) lead to the generation of substantial amounts of sulphide, lime sludge and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The conventional preparatory process for chrome tanning namely pickling, which involves the use of sodium chloride and sulphuric acid, generates more amount of dissolved solids. The chrome tanning process by virtue of its poor exhaustion behavior emanates liquor containing chromium about 1000 fold more than the norm specified by the pollution control authorities.
Attempt into Enzyme Application for Dehairing
The researcher has developed an enzyme assisted dehairing process using sodium sulphide in an amount 85% lesser than that used in conventional lime-sulphide dehairing process. The process does not require lime for dehairing thereby ensuring not only 100% elimination of lime sludge formation, but also complete removal of hair at an unusual pH (8.0). However, the pelts require a reliming process, which in turn creates lime sludge and TDS problem. Hence, the researcher has developed a non-lime opening up method based on sodium hydroxide. An optimum concentration (1.0% offer at 350% float) of sodium hydroxide has been established for optimal opening up of fibre bundles. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, spent alkali liquor and pelt analysis, softness measurements and stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis. The pelt analysis shows that the opening up of fibre bundles has attained equilibrium and the pH of the cross-section is 8.5. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally treated leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Especially softness of the leathers is numerically proven to be comparable with that of control. The process also enjoys elimination of deliming process coupled with a 45% reduction in total solids load on environment.
Joy of Playing with Conventional Method of Liming
In an another attempt to combat the pollution from beam-house processes, the researcher has found an eco-friendly way of doing the conventional liming-reliming processes. An approach has been made to apply the beam-house chemicals with optimal requirement. This is based on the fact that swelling requires only 20 to 40% water (based on raw skin weight before soaking) for conventional opening up. This would, in principle, make possible the use of only one tenth of the chemicals conventionally used in liming-reliming processes maintaining the same concentration gradient. The process employs 40% water, 0.35% sodium sulphide and 1% lime for liming and 40% water and 1% lime for reliming, with conventional process time in a drum. It has been found that the dehairing is complete and the extent of opening up of fibre bundles is comparable to that of the control. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally opened up leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Especially, softness of the leathers is proven to be numerically comparable with that of control. The process also enjoys reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total solids load on environment by 85 and 12%, respectively compared to the conventional process. The total dry sludge from the liming-reliming processes is brought down from 152 kg to 6 kg for processing 1 ton of raw skins, which has been demonstrated for the first time.

 

Success Story of Reduction in Chromium, TDS and Formaldehyde Emission
Conventional chrome tanning process does require pickling as a conditioning process. This process leads to substantial discharge of effluent containing sodium chloride and sulphates, which increases the TDS load. Hence, the researcher has developed a pickle-less chrome tanning process using a formaldehyde free chrome syntan instead of a conventional basic chromium sulphate salt. The process provides leathers having acceptable quality and reduces not only TDS but also chromium in the effluent. In an other attempt to reduce the chromium emission, the researcher has developed another tanning agent based on chromium and silica. The product exhibits more than 85% chromium exhaustion when used in tanning. The crust leathers exhibit excellent softness, suppleness, grain smoothness, stretch and strength.

 

Two in One: Coloring Leathers Naturally While Reducing Chromium Emission Easily
All wastes containing chromium are considered hazardous by the US environmental protection agency (EPA). The researcher has been keenly involved in the development of new generation mineral tanning agents. One such development is the production of a novel chromium-iron tanning agent. The product ensures more than 90% exhaustion of chromium as against 60-70% exhaustion as in the case of conventional chrome tanning process. The product eliminates the drawbacks associated with solo iron tanned leather namely reduction in strength and discoloration on ageing. The product when used as a solo tanning agent produced leathers with increased softness and grain smoothness. Further, the chromium-iron tanned leathers exhibit comparable hydrothermal stability compared to that of chrome tanned leather. In view of environmental compatibility as well as protection, the product envisages another paramount advantage by eliminating the dyeing process. The conventional dyeing operation chiefly employs dyes having cancer-causing arylamines for coloring leathers. The intrinsic nature of the product lends itself to form variety of colors when treated with a variety of vegetable tannins, which are already used as retanning agents in post tanning operations. For instance, when chromium-iron tanned leathers are treated with myrobalan extract, a deep black color is imparted to the final leathers.

 

First Attempt in Narrow pH Leather Processing
The researcher has also developed a leather processing technique for tanning skins/hides without deliming and pickling processes. The process envisages the use of lyotropic agents for opening up the fibre bundles and employs a pickleless chrome tanning system in a narrow pH range (4.0-8.0). Thereby, the process claims an environmental benefit of reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids (TS) loads by 67 and 64 %, respectively. The developed process claims substantial reduction in water and time requirement as well.
Venturing into Biocatalytic Fibre Opening: Reviewed in Nature Science Update and Science & Technology, The Hindu
In an attempt to combat the pollution from beam-house processes, the researcher has found an enzyme based fibre opening process. An approach has been made to do the beam-house processes using bioproducts. This is based on the fact that the enzymes specifically act on the substrate. Suitable enzymes have been designed in order to target hair and cementing substances, separately. The approach leads to paradigm shift from chemical to bio processing. It has been found that the dehairing is complete and the extent of opening up of fibre bundles is comparable to that of the control. This has been substantiated through scanning electron microscopic, stratigraphic chrome distribution analysis and softness measurements. Performance of the leathers is shown to be on par with conventionally opened up leathers through physical and hand evaluation. Especially, softness of the leathers is proven to be numerically comparable with that of control. The process also enjoys reduction in chemical oxygen demand and total solids load on environment by 45 and 35%, respectively compared to the conventional process. The total dry sludge from the liming-reliming processes is brought down from 152 kg to 12 kg for processing 1 ton of raw skins. However, the amylase-treated hides are further processed conventionally, soaking them first in a pickle bath consisting huge amount of salt and sulfuric acid and further chemically stop them from rotting by treating with chrome tanning salt. This results in significant increase of dissolved solids as well as chromium in the wastewater.

 

Marrying Pickle-free Chrome Tanning with Bioprocessing: A Successful Integration
Fortunately, this tailored pretanning process provides a clean collagen matrix having neutral pH. This provides a clue to tan the skins directly without deliming and pickling (acidification), if one has an effective tanning system without preacidification process. Recently, the researcher and his coworkers have developed a chrome tanning system without a pickling process for conventionally limed and delimed collagen matrix. Now, it is possible to integrate the bio-driven process with a pickle free chrome tanning process. This results in complete revamping of the conventional leather process sequence. Generally, conventional tanning process involves 'do-undo' processes like, curing (dehydration) - soaking (rehydration), liming (swelling) - deliming (deswelling), pickling (acidification) - depickling (basification). Further wide variation in pH has been limited to a very short pH profile. The net benefits of this approach are countless.

The researcher and his colleagues have now shown that this enzyme-driven three step tanning process is applicable not only to thin skins but also to heavy and thick hides. More excitingly, the processed leathers show similar or comparable physical and tactile properties to that of conventionally processed leathers. A scanning electron microscopic cross section view of tanned cowhides shows that the fibre bundles are not modified due to the change in a multistep process to an enzyme-driven three step tanning process. The researcher has also demonstrated that the bio-driven three-step tanning is economically viable and attractive, if commercial enzyme products are employed. Enzymatic processing when synergized with compact chrome tanning, results in reduction of chemical oxygen demand, total solids and chromium emissions into the environment by 80, 85 and 80% compared to traditional processing. It cuts the amount of solid sludge that dehairing and fibre-opening generate by an amazing 91%. It would further be interesting to note that the enzyme treatment softens the matrix thereby increases the area of the final leather. This results in nearly US$ 100 savings for processing 1 tonne skins/hides, since leather is sold on area basis.

 

Selected Publications

  • Collagen based magnetic nanocomposites for oil removal applications, P. Thanikaivelan, N.T. Narayanan, B.K. Pradhan and P.M. Ajayan, , Sci. Rep. 2012, 2, 230 (7p)
  • Optical bifunctionality of europium-complexed luminescent graphene nanosheets,B.K. Gupta, P. Thanikaivelan, T.N. Narayanan, L. Song, W. Gao, T. Hayashi, A.L.M. Reddy, A. Saha, V. Shanker, M. Endo, A.A. Marti and P.M. Ajayan, , Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 5227-5233.
  • Probing a Bifunctional Luminomagnetic Nanophosphor for Biological Applications: A Photoluminescence and Time-Resolved Spectroscopic Study,B.K. Gupta, V. Rathee, T.N. Narayanan, P. Thanikaivelan, A. Saha, Govind, S.P. Singh, V. Shanker, A.A. Marti and P.M. Ajayan, Small 2011, 7, 1767-1773  
  • Sodium metasilicate based fiber opening for greener leather processing,S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 1731-1739.
  • Reversing the Conventional Leather Processing Sequence for Cleaner Leather Production,S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan,J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 1069-1075.  
  • Recent Trends in Leather Making: Processes, Problems and Pathways, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami,Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 35, 37-79.  
  • Silicate Enhanced Enzymatic Dehairing: A New Lime-Sulfide-Free Process for Cowhides,S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan,J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 3776-3783.
  • Natural Leathers from Natural Materials: Progressing Toward a New Arena in Leather Processing,S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 871-879.
  • Progress and recent trends in biotechnological methods for leather processing, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami,Trends Biotechnol. 2004, 22, 181-188
  • Green solution for tannery pollution: Effect of enzyme based lime-free unhairing and fibre opening in combination with pickle-free chrome tanning,S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair, Green Chem. 2003, 5, 707-714.
  • Biointervention Makes Leather Processing Greener: An Integrated Cleansing and Tanning System, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 2609-2617
  • Green Route for the Disposal of Chrome Shavings (Chromium Containing Solid Waste) in Tanning Industry,
    J. Raghava Rao, P. Thanikaivelan, K.J. Sreeram and B.U Nair, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 1372-1376
  • Zero discharge tanning: A shift from chemical to biocatalytic leather processing, P. Thanikaivelan,J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 4187-4194
Published Papers
1 A novel chromium-iron tanning agent: Cross-fertilisation in solo tannage
P.Thanikaivelan, V.Geetha, J.Raghava Rao, K.J.Sreeram and Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2000, 84, 82-87
2 Application of quantum chemical descriptor in quantitative structure activity and structure property relationship
P. Thanikaivelan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair
Chem. Phys. Lett. 2000, 323, 59-70
3 Development of a leather processing method in narrow pH profile. Part 1. Standardisation of unhairing process
P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2000, 84, 276-284
4 Interior leathers: Study on the application of leather as a functional and decorative interior finish
P.Thanikaivelan, A.Ashok and B.Chandrasekaran
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2001, 96, 23-25.
5 Development of a leather processing method in narrow pH profile. Part 2. Standardisation of tanning process
P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2001, 85, 106-115.
6 Approach towards zero discharge tanning: Exploration of NaOH based opening up method
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2001, 96, 222-233.
7 An improved product-process for cleaner chrome tanning in leather processing
V.Suresh, M.Kanthimathi, P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and B.Unni Nair
J. Clean. Prod. 2001, 9, 483-491.
8 Molecular Mechanics and Dynamics Studies on the Interaction of Gallic Acid with Collagen like Peptides
B. Madhan, P. Thanikaivelan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao, B.U. Nair, T. Ramasami
Chem. Phys. Lett. 2001, 346, 334-340.
9 A Novel Formaldehyde-free Synthetic Chrome Tanning Agent for Pickle-less Chrome Tanning: Comparative Study on Syntan Versus Modified Basic Chromium Sulfate
P. Thanikaivelan, M. Kanthimathi, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2002, 97, 127-136
10 Green Route for the Disposal of Chrome Shavings (Chromium Containing Solid Waste) in Tanning Industry
J.Raghava Rao, P. Thanikaivelan, K.J. Sreeram and B.U Nair
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 1372-1376.
11 Zero discharge tanning: A shift from chemical to biocatalytic leather processing
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2002, 36, 4187-4194.
12 Development of Natural Colors in Cr-Fe Tanned Upper Leathers
J Raghava Rao, C Prabhakar, R Rajapandian, P. Thanikaivelan, J Malathi and Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2002, 97, 267-276.
13 Development of Natural Colors In Cr-Fe Tanned Garment Leathers
J Raghava Rao, P. Thanikaivelan, J Malathi, R Rajaram and B U Nair
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2002, 86, 106-111.
14 Chemical reactivity and selectivity using Fukui functions: Basis set and population scheme dependence in the framework of B3LYP theory
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Padmanabhan, V. Subramanian and T. Ramasami
Theor. Chem. Acc. 2002, 107, 326-335.
15 An eco-friendly option for less-chrome and dye-free leather processing: In-situ generation of natural colors in leathers tanned with Cr-Fe complex
J Raghava Rao, P Thanikaivelan and Balachandran Unni Nair
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2002, 4, 115-121.
16 Underlying principles in chrome tanning: Part 1. Conceptual designing of pickle-less tanning
W. Legesse, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2002, 97, 475-486.
17 Approach towards zero discharge tanning: Role of concentration on the development of eco-friendly liming-reliming processes
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami
J. Clean. Prod. 2003, 11, 79-90.
18 Stepping into third millennium: third generation leather processing: a three step tanning technique
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2003, 98, 173-184.
19 Biointervention Makes Leather Processing Greener: An Integrated Cleansing and Tanning System
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 2609-2617.
20 An integrated eco-friendly tanning method for the manufacture of upper leathers from goatskins
S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2003, 87, 149-158.
21 Green solution for tannery pollution: Effect of enzyme based lime-free unhairing and fibre opening in combination with pickle-free chrome tanning,
S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair,
Green Chem. 2003, 5, 707-714.
22 A Bio-Driven Lime and Pickle Free Tanning Paves Way For Greener Garment Leather Production,
R. Aravindhan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair,
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2004, 99, 53-66.
23 Underlying principles in chrome tanning: Part 2. Underpinning mechanism in pickle-less tanning,
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami,
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2004, 99, 82-94.
24 Natural Leathers from Natural Materials: Progressing Toward a New Arena in Leather Processing,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 871-879.
25 Progress and recent trends in biotechnological methods for leather processing,
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami,
Trends Biotechnol. 2004, 22, 181-188.
26 Tanning Studies with Basic Chromium Sulfate Prepared Using Chrome Shavings as a Reductant: A Call for ‘Wealth From Waste’ Approach to the Tanning Industry,
J. Raghava Rao, P. Thanikaivelan, K.J. Sreeram and Balachandran Unni Nair,
J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 2004, 99, 170-176.
27 Studies on the Development of Pickle-Less Vegetable Tanning,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2004, 99, 281-288.
28 Development of Integrated Wet Finishing Process: Manufacture of Garment Leathers,
T. Ayyasamy, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2004, 99, 367-375.
29 Synthesis, characterization and thermal studies on cellulose acetate membranes with additive,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Srinivasan, D. Mohan and M. Rajendran,
Eur. Polym. J. 2004, 40, 2153-2159.
30 Pickle-free chrome tanning using a polymeric synthetic tanning agent for cleaner leather processing,
J. Raghava Rao, M. Kanthimathi, P. Thanikaivelan, K.J. Sreeram, R. Ramesh, S. Ramalingam, N. K. Chandrababu, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami,
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2004, 6, 243-249.
31 Recent Trends in Leather Making: Processes, Problems and Pathways,
P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami,
Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 35, 37-79.
32 A Source Reduction Approach: Integrated bio-based tanning methods and the role of enzymes in dehairing and fibre opening,
S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami,
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2005, 7, 3-14.
33 The Development of an Integrated Rechroming-Neutralization-Post Tanning Process: Manufacture of Upper Leathers from Goatskins,
T. Ayyasamy, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair,
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2005, 89, 71-79.
34 An Enzymatic Beamhouse Process Coupled with Semi-Metal Tanning and Eco-Benign Post Tanning Leads to Cleaner Leather Production,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2005, 100, 174-186.
35 Silicate Enhanced Enzymatic Dehairing: A New Lime-Sulfide-Free Process for Cowhides,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 3776-3783.
36 Integration of Chrome Tanning and Wet Finishing Process for Making Garment Leathers,
P. Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2005, 100, 225-232.
37 A one-bath chrome tanning together with wet-finishing process for reduced water usage and discharge,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2005, 7, 168-176.
38 Reversing the Conventional Leather Processing Sequence for Cleaner Leather Production,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 1069-1075.
39 A New Leather-Making Process for Meeting Eco-label Standards: Processing of Goatskins,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2006, 101, 192-205.
40 Gauge Length Effect on the Tensile Properties of Leather,
P. Thanikaivelan, D. C. Shelly and S. S. Ramkumar,
J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2006, 101, 1202-1209.
41 Single step hair removal and fiber opening process: Simultaneous and successive addition of protease and -amylase,
P. Thanikaivelan, C. K. Bharath, S. Saravanabhavan, C. Anandhi, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2006, 101, 388-398.
42 Removal of chromium from aqueous solution using cellulose acetate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, N. Jaya, D. Mohan and M. Raajenthiren,
J. Hazard. Mater. B 2007, 139, 44-49.
43 Influence of Test Length on the Tensile Properties of Upholstery Leather: Relation to Weak Link Theory,
P. Thanikaivelan, K. Krishnaraj, B. Chandrasekaran, D. C. Shelly and S. S. Ramkumar,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2007, 102, 10-15.
44 Integrated hair removal and fiber opening process using mixed enzymes,
P. Thanikaivelan, C. K. Bharath, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, N. K. Chandrababu and B. U. Nair,Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2007, 9, 61-68.
45 Performance characterization of cellulose acetate and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) blend membranes,
J. A. Raguime, G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, D. Mohan and M. Raajenthiren,
J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2007, 104, 3042-3049.
46 A chemo-enzymatic pathway leads towards zero discharge tanning,
R. Aravindhan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
J. Clean. Prod. 2007, 15, 1217-1227.
47 Metal ion separation and protein removal from aqueous solutions using modified cellulose acetate membranes: Role of polymeric additives,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, J. A. Raguime, M. Raajenthiren and D. Mohan,
Sep. Purif. Technol. 2007, 55, 8-15.
48 Studies on Permeation, Rejection, and Transport of Aqueous Poly(ethylene Glycol) Solutions using Ultrafiltration Membranes,
N. Jaya, G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan, D. Mohan and M. Raajenthiren,
Sep. Sci. Technol. 2007, 42, 963-978.
49 Development of formaldehyde-free leathers in perspective of retanning: Part 1. Benchmarking for the evolution of a single syntan system,
P. Thanikaivelan, C. Ram Mohan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2007, 102, 306-314.
50 Factors Influencing the Activity of Enzymes and Their Kinetics: Bioprocessing of Skin,
M. Madhumathi, S. Cheerla, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, N. K. Chandra Babu and B. U. Nair,
Appl. Biochem. Biotechol. 2007, 136, 265-278.
51 Fabrication and Characterization of CA/PSf/SPEEK Ternary Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan and M. Raajenthiren,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2008, 47, 1488-1494.
52 Sodium metasilicate based fiber opening for greener leather processing,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 1731-1739.
53 Upgradation of leathers: Masking defects using pigments in pre-finishing processes,
R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, P. Thanikaivelan, S. V. Kanth, C. S. Gnanasekaran, G. Tuta, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2008, 67, 233-238.
54 Enzymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Opening,
V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, P. Saravanan and B. U. Nair,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2008, 103, 167-172.
55 Mechanical properties of sheep nappa leather influencing drape,
K. Krishnaraj, P. Thanikaivelan and B. Chandrasekaran,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2008, 103, 179-185.
56 Performance and eco-impact of reverse processed hair sheep gloving leather,
S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, B. U. Nair, T. Ramasami and D. C. Shelly,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2008, 103, 303-313.
57 Development of formaldehyde-free leathers in the perspective of retanning: Part II. Combination of formaldehyde-free retanning syntans,
C. Ram Mohan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2008, 10, 287-294.
58 Preparation and characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation applications,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan and M. Raajenthiren,
Mat. Sci. Eng. C. 2009, 29, 246-252.
59 Relation between drape and mechanical properties of goat suede garment leathers,
K. Krishnaraj, P. Thanikaivelan and B. Chandrasekaran,
J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2009, 93, 1-7.
60 Performance evaluation of pelts and leather from domestic hair sheep crossbreeds,
D. C. Shelly, P. Divya, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Peng and C. Hodges,
J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2009, 104, 194-203.
61 Comfort, chemical, mechanical and structural properties of natural and synthetic leathers used for apparel,
T.B. Sudha, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Phebe Aaron, K. Krishnaraj and B. Chandrasekaran,
J. Appl. Polym. 114, 1761-1767.
62 Chemical degradation of melanin in enzyme based dehairing and fibre opening of buff calfskins
V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair,
Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 2009, 11, , 299-306.
63 Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) induced porous poly(ether sulfone) blend membranes for the separation of proteins and metal ions,
G. Arthanareeswaran, P. Thanikaivelan and M. Raajenthiren, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2010, 116, 995-1004.
64 Effect of chromium and tanning method on the drape of goat suede apparel leathers,
K. Krishnaraj, P. Thanikaivelan and B. Chandrasekaran, J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 2010, 105, 71-83.
65 Fabrication of cellulose acetate-zirconia hybrid membranes for ultrafiltration applications: Performance, structure and fouling analysis,
G. Arthanareeswaran and P. Thanikaivelan, Sep. Purif. Technol. 2010, 74, 230-235
66 Effect of sewing on the drape of goat suede apparel leathers,
Int. K. Krishnaraj, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Phebe Aaron and B. Chandrasekaran, J. Cloth. Sci. Technol. 2010, 22, 358-373
67 Preparation and characterization of composite sheets from collagenous and chromium-collagen complex wastes using polyvinylpyrrolidone: Two problems, one solution, Waste Biomass Valor.
M. Ashokkumar, P. Thanikaivelan, R. Murali, B. Chandrasekaran, 2010, 1, 347-355
68

Measurement and correlation of drape coefficient and related mechanical properties of cow nappa apparel leathers,
K. Krishnaraj, P. Thanikaivelan and B. Chandrasekaran, J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2010, 94, 212-219.

69 Structural and thermal investigations of biomimetically grown casein-soy hybrid protein fibers,
T.B. Sudha, P. Thanikaivelan, M. Ashokkumar and B. Chandrasekaran, , Appl. Biochem. Biotechol. 2011, 163, 247-257
70 Influence of mechanical properties of sheep nappa leathers on seam efficiency,
K. Phebe, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Krishnaraj and B. Chandrasekaran, J. Soc. Leather Technol. Chem. 2011, 95, 16-22
71 Transforming chromium containing collagen wastes into flexible composite sheets using cellulose derivatives: Structural, thermal and mechanical investigations,
M. Ashokkumar, P. Thanikaivelan, K. Krishnaraj and B. Chandrasekaran, Polym. Compos. 2011, 32, 1009-1017.
72 Modulating chromium containing leather wastes into improved composite sheets using polydimethylsiloxane,
M. Ashokkumar, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, Polym. Polym. Compos. 2011, 19, 497-503.
73 Probing a Bifunctional Luminomagnetic Nanophosphor for Biological Applications: A Photoluminescence and Time-Resolved Spectroscopic Study,
B.K. Gupta, V. Rathee, T.N. Narayanan, P. Thanikaivelan, A. Saha, Govind, S.P. Singh, V. Shanker, A.A. Marti and P.M. Ajayan, Small 2011, 7, 1767-1773.
74 Structure-Property Relation Between Non-Mulberry Silk Fabrics and Goat Suede Leather,
P.S. Sureshkumar,P. Thanikaivelan, M. Ashokkumar, B. Chandrasekaran, Polym. Renew. Sources 2011, 2, 1-20.
75 Hybrid biodegradable films from collagenous wastes and natural polymers for biomedical applications,
R. Murali, A. Anumary, M. Ashokkumar, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, Waste Biomass Valor. 2011, 2, 323-335
76 Optical bifunctionality of europium-complexed luminescent graphene nanosheets,
B.K. Gupta, P. Thanikaivelan,T.N. Narayanan, L. Song, W. Gao, T. Hayashi, A.L.M. Reddy, A. Saha, V. Shanker, M. Endo, A.A. Marti and P.M. Ajayan, Nano Lett. 2011, 11, 5227-5233
77 Eco-benign enzymatic dehairing of goatskins utilizing a protease from a Pseudomonas fluorescens species isolated from fish visceral waste,
K. Nadiya, V. Punitha, S. Amsamani, J.R. Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and P. Thanikaivelan, J. Clean. Prod. 2012, 25, 27-33
78 Collagen based magnetic nanocomposites for oil removal applications,
P. Thanikaivelan
, N.T. Narayanan, B.K. Pradhan and P.M. Ajayan, Sci. Rep. 2012, 2, 230 (7p).
79 Transport of copper, nickel and zinc ions across ultrafiltration membrane based on modified polysulfone and cellulose acetate,
G. Arthanareeswaran and P. Thanikaivelan, Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. (in press)
80 Synthesis and characterization of hybrid biodegradable films from bovine hide collagen and cellulose derivatives for biomedical applications,
A. Anumary, P. Thanikaivelan, M. Ashokkumar, R. Kumar, P.K. Sehgal and B. Chandrasekaran, Soft Mater. (in press)
 
Patents filed / applied
1 A process for the preparation of a novel chromium-iron complex for use in leather industry and the novel chromium-iron complex prepared thereby
J.Raghava Rao, K.J.Sreeram, P.Thanikaivelan, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami
Indian Patent 446DEL99, (1999)
2 An improved process for the preparation of a tanning agent
P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao, M. Kanthimathi, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami
Applied for Indian Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF240/2000), (2000)
3 A process for the preparation of a novel synthetic tanning agent
M. Kanthimathi, P.Thanikaivelan, K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao, R. Sundaram, B.U.Nair and T. Ramasami
Applied for Indian Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF196/00), (2000)
4 A process for the preparation of a novel synthetic aluminium tanning agent
M. Kanthimathi, P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 2001
5 A process for the preparation of a synthetic tanning agent
M. Kanthimathi, P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T.Ramasami
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF/0), (2002)
6 A novel three step bioprocess in leather processing
P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T.Ramasami
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF/0), (2002)
7 An eco-friendly bio-process for leather processing,
P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T.Ramasami,
Indian Patent, 1523/DELNP/2005, (2002)
8 A novel transposed process for making leather,
S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan, J. R. Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 389/DELNP/2004, (2003)
9 A novel dehairing and fibre opening process for complete elimination of lime and sodium sulfide,
S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan, J. R. Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 1536/DEL/2003, (2003))
10 A novel bio-tanning process for leather making,
S. Saravanabhavan, P.Thanikaivelan, J. R. Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF393/04), (2004)
11 A process for the preparation of bio-tanning agent,
P.Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. R. Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent (CSIR Ref. No. NF425/04), (2004)
12 A novel single step process for dehairing and fibre opening using enzymes,
P.Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. R. Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 197/DEL/2007, (2005)
13 A process for the preparation of a mixture of carbonaceous products from proteinaceous materials,
P.Thanikaivelan, A. M. Thiruvilan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 1625/DEL/2007, (2006)
14 A process for the preparation of sheets from proteinous sources,
M. Ashokkumar, P.Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent (CSIR Ref. No. 0068NF2009), (2009)
15 A novel electrically conducting composite and a process for the preparation thereof,
M. Ashokkumar, A. Anumary, R. Murali, P.Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran,
Applied for Indian and PCT Patent, 209DEL2011, (2010)
 

Awards

  • VNMM Award 2011 from IIT, Roorkee
  • IEI Young Engineers Award 2010-11 in Environmental Engineering from the Institution of Engineers (India),Kolkata.
  • Fulbright-Nehru Senior Research Fellowship 2010-2011 from United States-India Educational Foundation (USIEF),New Delhi
  • WIPO Certificate of Merit 2008 from World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and National Research Development Corporation (NRDC), New Delhi.
  • Young Associate in Indian Academy of Sciences from 2007 to 2011
  • NRDC Meritorious Invention Award 2007 from National Research Development Corporation (NRDC), New Delhi.
  • INAE Young Engineer Award 2006 from Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), New Delhi.
  • CSIR Young Scientist Award 2006 in Engineering Sciences from Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhii.
  • Biotech Product & Process Development & Commercialization Award – 2005 from Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India.
  • BOYSCAST Fellowship Award for the year 2004-05 from Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India.
  • J Sinha Roy Memorial Award from Indian Leather Technologist’s Association, Kolkata for Best Article Published in JILTA in 2004.
  • Innovation Potential of Student Projects Award 2004Doctoral Level from Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), New Delhi.
  • Environmental Award 2003 from the Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu for Best Research Paper in the field of Environmental Science and Technology.
  • Senior Research Fellowship 1999-2002 from Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi

 

Ph.D Students

 

1. Dr. Ashokkumar Meiyazhagan PhD
Title: Studies on the conversion of collagenous wastes into advanced materials with multifunctional properties
Ph.D. completed on Oct, 2014

2. Murali Ragothaman,
Senior Research Fellow - ICMR
Title: Hybrid biomaterials from collagenous wastes for biomedical applications
Ph.D. Regd on Jul, 2013

3. Cheirmadurai Kalirajan
Project Assistant – III (CSIR – ZERIS)
Project title: Hybrid collagen biomaterials incorporated with metal nanoparticles and natural phenols for scar-less wound healing in burn injury
Ph.D. Regd on Dec, 2013

4. Berhanu Telay Mekonnen
Twinning Project - Ethiopia
Project title: Studies on the conversion of collagenous solid wastes into advanced functional materials
Ph.D. Regd on Aug, 2013

 

Project students

 

1. Nagaraj Subbiah, M Phil, Chemistry
Project Assistant – III (CSIR – RIWT)
Project title: Stabilization of collagen using metal nanoparticles for leather applications

2. Silambarasan Selvaraj ., MSc., Biochemistry
Project Assistant – III (CSIR – RIWT)
Project title: Leather processing using green solvents