CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute
Dr.J. Raghava Rao
Chief Scientist
Academic Qualifications
    Ph.D, Anna University ( 1991)
Contact Details
Dr.J. Raghava Rao
Chief Scientist
Head, Honorary Faculty, Anna University
Chemical Laboratory
CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute
Adyar, Chennai – 600 020
e-mail: jrrao@clri.res.in, jrrao_clri@yahoo.co.in,
Phone:+91-44-24411630


Research Experience
    Scientist at CLRI 1993 - till date
  • Zero discharge leather processing
  • Paradigm shift from chemical to biobased leather processing
  • Rationalization of conventional leather processing
  • Wealth from waste approaches in leather processing
  • Ecobenign tanning agents for cleaner leather process
  • Waterless leather processing
  • Solid Waste Management
  • Research Associate 1990 - 1993 Senior Research Fellow 1987 - 1991
  • Developed chrome management technologies for cleaner leather processing
  • LEAD Associate 1996 - 1998
  • Leadership training for Environment and Development
Member of Research/Organizational Committees
  • Member of the VBM task force on Environment
  • Member of Environmental Research Committee (2003-2006), Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India.
  • Convener of Environmental Management Committee, Council for Leather Exports
  • Member of CLRI and CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations Committee
  • Member of LERIG Committee
  • Member of Purchase Committee
  • Member of ISTAG
  • Member of Library Committee
  • Chairman of Disposable Committee
  • Co-Nodal Officer of CSIR Network Project “Zero Emission Research Initiatives”
  • Additional Coordinator of the Bench Marking Program- Phase II at Ethiopia
  • Convener for LERIG 2008 1nd 2013
  • Chairman class committee for B.Tech Program
  • Chairman of CLRI Staff benevolent Fund
  • Co-Nodal Officer of CSIR Network Project “Zero Emission Research Initiatives for Leather”
  • Additional Coordinator Indo-Ethiopian Bench Marking Programme Phase II, 2010
  • Coordinator of AcSIR at CSIR-CLRI, 2012-till date
  • Nodal Officer for the SIP of CSIR on “Research Initiatives for Waterless Tanning”
  • Co-Nodal Officer of CSIR Network Project “Zero Emission Research Initiatives for Solid Waste”
  • Coordinator for Research Activities of Indo-Ethiopian Twinning Program for capacity building of the Leather Industry Development Institute at Ethiopia, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia
  • Co-coordinator of India-Vietnam Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology on “Research cooperation on waste water treatment and application of cleaner leather manufacturing technologies
  • Chairman of Health Service Committee
Performance Indicators
  • 240 papers published in peer reviewed journals with total citation of 2560 and h-index of 28
  • Contributes to 15% of the total papers published in JALCA and 50% of the total papers from the Institute in JALCA; 90% of the papers from Institute in Environmental Science and Technology
  • 17 patents granted with 7 US patents out of 20 patents filed; 3 patents commercialized
  • About 50 product, process technologies developed and 15 transferred
  • Reviewer for leading Journals namely Env. Sci. Tech., Biomaterials, J Clean. Prod., J. Hazard. Mater., Dyes & Pigments, Biores. Technol., Green Chem., J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., Mater. Sci. Engg., Chemosphere, Clean Techn. Environ. Policy, Ind. Engg. Chem. Res., Process Biochem., J. Phy. Chem., Environ. Engg. Sci., Environ. Engg. Manag. J., J. Taiwan Ins. Chem. Engg., J. Sci. Ind. Res., etc.
  • Preparing a Chapter on “A Scenario Analysis on Leather as a Material and Changing Technologies for Manufacturing” under TECHNOLOGY VISION 2035 for TIFAC, India
  • Led the leather science group with young colleagues to excel in respective research work, leading to three CSIR Young Scientist Awards, one INSA Medal for Young Scientist in Engineering Sciences
  • Nodal officer of SIP project on “Research Initiatives for Waterless tanning” and Co-nodal officer of Network projects on ZERIL and ZERIS
  • Project leader for the team working on Leather Technology Project on chrome management(1995-2000), CSIRO (Australia) - CLRI Collaborative program on direct chrome liquor recycling under salinity reduction in tannery wastewaters (2004-2007), member of TNO-CLRI Co-operation Programme for the Indian Leather Sector in the Field of Environmental Technology(1993-1998)
  • Coordinated as Additional coordinator for the Indo-Ethiopian Bench Marking Programme Phase II – Technology upgradation of Ethiopian leather industry (2010-2011); Coordinated the Research activities of Indo-Ethiopian Twinning Program for the capacity nuilding of LIDI (2011-2014); Co-coordinator of India-Vietnam Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology on “Research cooperation on waste water treatment and application of cleaner leather manufacturing technologies
  • Led a group of young scientists to bring out a book on “Global Alliances to Build Interdisciplinary Research for Leather: CSIR-CLRI Initiatives” during LERIG 2013
  • Contributed as a co-worker in the New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative program on biotechnology for leather.
  • Involved as a member, project leader and co-investigator in 16 external funded projects.
  • Guided 48 batches of Students for their B.Tech, 20 students for their M.Tech, 5 students for their M.Sc projects and 10 students for Ph.D (7 in progress).
Field of Interest
  • Chrome management in leather processing
  • Biobased leather processing
  • Cleaner Leather processing
  • Secured utilization of solids waste
  • Zero discharge concepts
  • Bioaccumulation of chromium from wastewaters
  • Development of eco-benign leather chemicals
  • Renovation technologies in leather processing
  • Wastewater treatment through bio-adsorption
  • Molecular level understanding of tanning
  • Novel composite materials
  • Green chemistry approach for leather processing
  • Development of natural colors on leather using natural dyes
  • Recovery of value added products from wastewaters
  • Waterless leather processing
  • New general mineral synatan
  • Retanning cum dyeing auxiliary from lignin based waste
  • Smart chemicals for intelligent leathers
Academic Profile
1980-1984 A C College, Anna University,-Chennai, India
  • Bachelor of Technology in leather
  • Second Rank with distinction
  • Project work on -Softies from buff hides
1985-1987 A C College, Anna University,-Chennai, India
  • Master of Technology in leather
  • First Rank with distinction
  • BM Das memorial Gold medal from ILTA
  • Project work on -Studies on various approaches to chrome management techniques
1987 -1991 Anna University,-Chennai, India
  • Doctor of Philosophy in leather technology under the guidance of Dr T Ramasami, Former Director CLRI and currently Secretary, DST Click here for Photograph
  • Research supported by the Senior Research Fellowship and Research Associateship of the CSIR
  • Project work on -Studies on the Approaches to the Better Management of Chromium(III) Salts as Tanning Agents
Fellowships
  • CSIR-DAAD Fellow 2008
  • Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering (FNAE), 2011
  • Fellow of Andhra Pradesh Akademi of Sciences (FAPS), 2014
  • Fellow of Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC), 2014
Academic Assignments
Teaching assignments:
Master Program in Leather technology
  • Advanced Leather Chemistry
Bachelors Program
  • Introduction to Leather Technology
  • Theory and Mechanism of Inorganic Tannages
  • Seminar and Comprehension skills
Projects Supervision:
  • Supervisor for B.Tech (48), M.Tech (20),M.Sc & M.Phil (4) and Ph.D Program (10 submitted and 7 in progress) Click here for details(Ph.D Students)
Visits Abroad
  • COSTA RICA under LEAD International training Program during 30 April to 10May 1996.
  • Zimbabwe under LEAD International training Program during 12-22 July 1998.
  • Australia under CSIR-CSIRO Joint Project during 22 Aug to 3 Sep 2004.
  • Italy to present a paper at 28th IULTCS Congress during 8-16 March 2005.
  • Washington DC to present a paper at 29th IULTCS Congress during 20-24 June 2007.
  • Beijing, China to present a paper at 30th Congress during 8-17 Oct 2009
  • Germany Under CSIR-DAAD Scientist Exchange Program, Oct-Dec 2009
  • Ethiopia, Under Bench Marking Project Phase II, April – May, June-Aug, 2011
  • Spain to present a paper at XXXI Congress during 27-30 Sep 2011
  • Ethiopia to coordinate the Research Activities of Twinning Program, 7 Oct to 11 Nov 2012;, 25 March to 8 April, 2013; 18-31 July 2013
  • Istanbul, Turkey, to present a paper at XXXII IULTCS Congress during 28-31 May 2013
  • Ethiopia to coordinate the Research Activities of Twinning Program, 18 to 31 July 2013
  • Ethiopia to coordinate the Research Activities of Twinning Program, 7 to 23 April 2014
  • Hanoi, Vietnam, Cooperative exchange program for the application of cleaner chrome tanning technologies, 8-23 June 2014
  • Ethiopia to coordinate the Research Activities of Twinning Program, 4 to 19 July 2014
Membership to Professional Bodies
  • Life member, Indian Leather Technologists Association (ILTA)
  • Life member, Chemical Research Society of India (CRSI)
  • Life member, Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA)
  • A C Tech Leather and Footwear Alumni Association Regd. (ALFA)
  • Member of American Leather Chemists Association
  • Member of society of Leather Technologists & Chemists
Products Developed
  • Developed a high exhaust basic chromium sulfate salt; the know-how released and Commercialised, Cleartan CR
  • Delivered a know how package for BCS salt, Clarichrome
  • Developed a novel zirconium based tanning salt, Organozir
  • Developed a new iron-chrome based tanning agent, Spectratan FE
  • Developed a new formaldehyde free chrome syntan, Ecochrome 2000
  • Developed a new formaldehyde free polymeric syntan, Tanaid
  • Developed a chromium-silica tanning agent, Silchrome
  • Developed a novel formaldehyde free organo-aluminium complex for self tanning, Alsyn
  • Developed a multifunctional synthetic tanning agent based on natural materials, Protac M
  • Developed of a novel bio- tanning agent, Biotan
  • Developed a formaldehyde free melamine resin tanning agent
  • Development of rare earth based tanning agent
  • Development of retanning cum dyeing syntan from degraded lignin of paper and pulp industry
  • Development of PCM based reattning agnets for thermo responsive leathers
Product and Process Technologies Developed and Implemented
    Involved in the development, demonstration and transfer of novel tanning agents and waste management technologies for the leather industry. These includes
  • Cleartan CR An high exhaust chrome tanning salt [Technology delivered to M/s. Golden Chemicals, Mumbai, India].
  • Clarichrome -Clarichrome - A basic chromium tanning agent [Technology delivered to M/s. Quinn Group of Companies, Hyderabad, India].
  • Claritan An aluminium tanning agent [Technology delivered to M/s. Quinn Group of Companies, Hyderabad, India].
  • Organozir A novel organo-polymeric matrix containing zirconium for chrome free tanning.
  • Spectratan FE A chromiumiron tanning agent for less chrome tanning and generation of natural colors in leathers.
  • Ecochrome 2000 A formaldehyde free chrome syntan for pickle free chrome tanning [Technology delivered to M/s Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd.].
  • Silchrome A chromium-silica tanning agent for less chrome tanning and improved bulk properties of leathers.
  • Alsyn A formaldehyde free aluminium syntan for self tanning.
  • TanAID A formaldehyde free polymeric syntan for pickle free chrome tanning [Technology delivered to M/s Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd.].
  • Hydrogen Peroxide for COD reduction A hydrogen peroxide based wastewater treatment method for treating wastewaters from tanning industries [Technology developed for tanneries in Tamil Nadu to comply with the pollution control board norms of COD and BOD].
  • Chrome Recovery/reuse - Batch type chrome recovery method for waste chrome streams treating on an average 10 m3 of chrome bearing effluent per day [Technology implemented at M/s Arafat Tanneries, Chennai, M/s Jai Bharat Tanneries Ltd. Ambur and M/s T Abdul Wahid Co., Ambur].
  • Semi-Continuous Chrome Recovery Continuous chrome recovery process for waste chrome liquors of high oil and low chrome to treat 70 m3 of chrome bearing effluent per day [Technology developed for Hindustan Lever Limited, Marungur, Tamil Nadu].
  • Chrome Recovery/reuse - Batch type chrome recovery method for waste chrome streams treating 5 m3 per day [Technology demonstrated at M/s Sri Padmasundari Tannery and cluster of tanneries, Dindigul under CLRI-AISHTMA Project]
  • Chrome Management High exhaust chrome management system developed under TNO-CLRI Cooperation Programme [Demonstrated at M/s Mow Chong and M/s Titan Leathers, Calcutta]
  • Chrome Management High exhaust closed loop chrome tanning system developed under Government sponsored Leather Technology Mission project. [Implemented at M/s Kings Intl. Ltd. and M/s Super House Ltd., Kanpur; M/s Paulbro Leathers and M/s Bawa Skins Co., Jalandhar and M/s Avanthi Leathers Ltd. Varadayapalem, AP]
  • Chrome Management High exhaust closed loop chrome tanning system demonstrated under UNDP-Calcutta Programme [M/s Alam Tannery, M/s Universal Leather Agency and M/s Hupsen Tannery, Calcutta]
  • Chrome Recovery from Spent Vegetable-Chrome Solutions A methodology for the recovery of chromium from vegetable-chrome composite waste solution has been standardized
  • Near Zero Discharge Tanning Methods A narrow pH tanning methodology involving enzyme-assisted unhairing, lime-free fibre opening and integrated pickle-free chrome tanning has been developed.
  • Natural Colors -Natural Colors Natural colors like black and brown shades have been developed on chrome-iron tanned leathers by treatment with various vegetable tannins and without using any synthetic dyes
  • Utilization of chrome shavings - Effective utilization of chrome shavings for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the manufacture of BCS as a potential tanning agent developed.
  • Direct Chrome Liquor Recycling - An approach for the secured recycling of chromium implemented at M/s KKSK Leather Processors (P) Ltd., M/s SA Abdul Azeez & Co. Erode; M/s SA International Tanning and M/s CKCM Khadershah & Brothers, Dindigul.
  • Bioprocessing of Leather A paradigm shift from chemical process to bioprocess of leather making to reduce the pollution load Implemented at M/s KKSK, Erode; M/s Shri Ramajayam Prime tanners and M/s KAR Leatehr Pvt. Ltd., Dindigul and M/s C Kalyanam & Co., Chennai, 2004-2006. [Technology delivered to M/s SPIC Ltd. Chennai]
  • Basic Chromium Sulfate Technology developed for the Preparation of Basic Chromium Sulfate to M/s Sri Rakka-Chem Syntans, Chennai, 2004.
  • Enzyme based Fibre Opening - Advanced stages of discussion with M/s SPIC Ltd. Chennai
  • Integrated Chrome Tanning- Pickle free chrome tanning using Tanaid towards TDS management. The technology implemented at M/s KKSK Leather Processors, Erode, 2004.
  • Integrated Wet Finishing Integration of post tanning operation to reduce water usage. Methodology developed for both upper and garment leathers.
  • Integration of Tanning-cum-wet Finishing Integration of process streams is gaining importance towards rapid processing.
  • Narrow pH Three Step Tanning New millennium three step tanning using enzyme based dehairing, fibre opening and pickle free chrome tanning in the pH range of 4 to 8
  • Secured Utilization of Solid waste for Treatment of Liquid wastes A novel approach towards secured utilization of solid waste. Fleshings and shavings have been used for the removal of chromium(VI) and dyes from the liquid effluents.
  • Bioaccumulation of Chromium Seaweeds has been used for the removal of chromium from the tannery wastewaters. The chromium-adsorbed seaweeds find use as reductant for BCS preparation.
  • Treatment of Colorants from Wastewaters Color removal from the wastewaters through adsorption on alginate beads as well as shavings have been standardized. Wet Peroxide oxidation using Cu or Mn-exchanged Y Zeolite catalyst for dye house wastewaters developed. Above 90% removal of dye from the wastewaters is achieved.
  • Xylanase for Pigment (Scud) Removal The removal of melanin, the black pigment from the skins/hides is a challenge for achieving clean and white pelt. A methodology has been developed and demonstrated in M/s C Kalyanam & Co., Chennai.
  • Wet Pink Leathers A combination tanning system to produce wet pink leathers in comparison to wet blue have been developed.
  • Reverse Leather Process A revolutionary process for leather making developed towards changing the fundamentals of leather processing.
  • Multifunctional syntans Multifunctional syntan based on natural materials developed towards ecobenign leather chemical.
  • Natural leathers Leathers made using natural materials towards ecobenign leather processing.
  • Biotanning Agent - Tanning agent based on collagenous material
  • Biotanning Process Tanning using biotanning agent for ecobenign organic tanning without any metal
  • Three Pot Approach for Both Solid and Liquid Waste Management Development of three pot approach for the secured treatment of chromium, tannins and solid waste
  • Saltfree Curing A methodology for curing hides/skins without salt
  • Rationalized Leather process Rationalized leather process for clean and green environment
  • Aqueous Two Phase System - ATPS for the recovery of proteins from tannery wastewaters
  • Chemoenzymatic Process - Dehairing and fibre opening through a combination of chemical and enzyme
  • Lime Free Chemical based Fibre Opening - Silicate based fibre opening as a lime free process
  • Chrome Shavings for Pigment Manufacture -- Converting chrome shavings into pigments
  • Natural Shades - Natural materials for natural shades, a shade card of 24 colors prepared
  • Phytoremediation of Salt Contaminated Soils - Sesuvium Portulacastrum for the removal of salinity from the soils
  • Bioaccumulation of Phenolics from Tannery Wastewaters - Chemically modified seaweed as biosorbent for phenolic compounds
  • Cost Effective fixing process for post tanning operation
  • Metal Free Tanning - Garment leathers from organic tannages as a metal free approach
  • Aqueous Two Phase System for Valuable Products Recovery - ATPS for the recovery of glycosamino glycans from tannery wastewaters
  • Henna Based Combination Tanning - Henna as a potential material for combination tanning with gluteraldehyde, oxazolidine, THPS
  • Less Chrome Approach - Combination tanning based on THPS with chromium
  • Green Chemistry in Leather Processing - Atom economy concept for chrome management system in leather processing
  • Waterless Leather Processing - Snooping Through Green Chemistry with green solvents based leather processing
  • Wealth from Waste – Use of black liquor for the development of leather aiuxiliaries
  • Preservation cum Unhairing – A two in one approach for leather making
  • SCC for preservation – Salt free preservation
  • Advanced Oxidation Process – An approach for the treatment of post tanning waste waters
  • Cool Gloves – PCM based retanning for cool glove leather
  • Chrome – Melamine Syntan – A mineral based syntan for belly filling
  • Enhanced Fibre Opening – Ionic liquid based fibre opening
  • Waterless Chrome Tanning – A zero waste waterless pickle free chrome tanning
  • Filler from Fleshing Waste – Activated carbon from fleshings as a filler for rubber making
  • Encapsulated Dyes – Dyeing of leather with any dye of any charge
Technologies Transferred
  • Rishab Intermediates, Pondicherry – High Exhaust Chrome Tanning Salt, 2014.
  • Self-basified Basic Chromium Sulphate –Technology developed and transferred to M/s Sri Kanakadurga Chromates (P) Ltd, AP, 2011
  • Single Step Dehairing and Fibre Opening – Technology know-how transferred to M/s Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd., Chennai, 2010
  • Direct Chrome Liquor Recycling – Technology transferred to M/s S Abdul Azeez & Co, M/s KKSK Leather Processors Pvt. Ltd., Erode, under CLRI-CSIRO project, 2008
  • Biobased Leather Manufacture– Technology know-how transferred to M/s Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd., Chennai, 2006 (Demonstrated in 4 tanneries- M/s KAR Leathers Pvt. Ltd., Dindigul; M/s KKSK Leather Processors Pvt. Ltd., Erode; M/s C Kalyanam & Co., Chennai and M/s Shri Ramajayam Prime Tanners, Dindigul)
  • Basic Chromium Sulfate – Standardization of process for the preparation of BCS to M/s Sri Rakka-Chem Syntans, Chennai, 2004
  • Package for Synthetic Tanning Agents -Technology know-how transferred to M/s Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd., Kolkata, 2003
  • Chrome Management System - Technology transferred to
    • Tanneries at Calcutta under UNDP-Calcutta Project, 1999
    • M/s Superhouse Ltd., Kanpur, 1999
    • M/s Avanthi Leathers Ltd., Varadayapalem, AP, 1999
    • M/s Kings Intl. Ltd., Kanpur, 1999
    • M/s Paulbro Leathers, Jalandhar, 2000
    • M/s Bawa Skin Co., Jalandhar, 2000
  • Chrome Recovery/reuse Technology transferred to
    • M/s Padmasundari Tannery and Cluster of Tanneries at Dindigul under CLRI-AISHTMA Project, 1997
    • M/s T Abdul Wahid Co., Ambur, 1998
    • M/s Jai Bharat Tanneries Ltd., Ambur, under TNO-CLRI Cooperation programme, 1993
  • Reuse of Supernatant from Chrome Recovery Systems -Developed and transferred to M/s Shafeeq Shameel & Co. under TNO-CLRI Cooperation Programme, 1997
  • Clarichrome and Claritan AL - Technology developed and transferred to M/s Quinn India Group of Companies, Hyderabad, 1996
  • Chrome recover/reuse for Wool-on Sheep SkinProcess -Developed and transferred to M/s Hindustan Lever Limited, Mumbai, 1996
  • Utilisation of Hydrogen Peroxide - Treatment of Tannery Wastes as a Consultancy work to M/s Asian Peroxides Ltd., Madras, 1996
  • Low Waste Closed Loop Chrome Tanning -Developed and demonstrated under TNO-CLRI cooperation programme
    • M/s New light Tanning Industries, Kanpur, 1995
    • M/s Titan Leathers Pvt. Ltd. and M/s Mow Chong Tanneries Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta, 1994
  • High Exhaust Chrome Tanning Salt “Cleartan CR” – Technology developed and transferred to M/s Golden Chemicals Ltd., Bombay, 1993
Lectures Delivered
  • Studies on the Approaches to Better Management of Cr(III) Salts as Tanning Agents - CSMCRI during CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, Sep. 1993.
  • Zero Waste Chrome Tanning: A Case Study - DST-CLRI workshop on Greening of Chromium based Industries, Madras, March 1997.
  • Waste Management in Leather Processing: A Case of Chromium - Key Note Lecture at International Conference on Industrial Pollution and Control Technologies (ICIPACT-97), JNU, Hyderabad, November 1997
  • Waste Management in Tanneries - SISI, Madras, March 1997.
  • CSurveillance of Chromium in Tanning: A Revisit - XXV IULTCS Congress, CLRI, Chennai, January 1999.
  • Chemistry of Chrome Tanning - Training course offered to factory manager from Ceylon Leather Products, Sri Lankan, 2000.
  • Theory and Practice of Chrome Tanning - Bharat Engineering College, 2000.
  • Chrome Tanning: An Insight to Theory and Mechanism - Priyadarshini Engineering College, Vaniyambadi, 2000.
  • Theory and Practice of Mineral Tanning - Staff of Leather Research Institute, Ethiopia, 2001.
  • Technology on bioprocess leather - Transferred to M/s KKSK Leather Processors (P) Ltd., Erode, M/s KAR and Shri Ramajayam Tanners, Dindigul, M/s C Kalyanam & Co.2004.
  • Waste Treatment in Leather Processing: A Case of Chromium - Anna Adarsh College for Women, Chennai, August 2001.
  • Industrial Waste treatment: A Case study on Leather Industry - Management Trainees at Anna Institute of Management, Chennai, Sep 2001.
  • Management of Chrome bearing Wastes in Leather Processing - Chemistry Department, Vaishnava College for Women, Chennai, December 2001.
  • Principles of Chrome Tanning Operation and Cleaner Processing Methodologies in Tanning Operations - Trainees from Gujarat, CLRI, Dec 2002, Chennai
  • State of Art Report on Solving Environmental Problems due to Leather Industries, existing Technologies, Their Limitations and Need for Further R&D - Expert Committee of Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, Jan 2003.
  • Cleaner Practices in Beamhouse and Tanning operations - Lecture delivered to the Executive Trainees from APJ Exports, CLRI, June 2003
  • New Millennium Leather Processing: Biomediated Three Step Tanning - 53rd BM Das Memorial Lecture during the Foundation day of Indian Leather Technologists Association, Kolkata, Aug 2003.
  • Cleaner Technologies for Leather Processing: A Real Life Study - National Seminar on Cleaner & Sustainable Technology, Pondicherry, Oct 2003.
  • Cleaner Leather Processing: A Technology Paradigm - Dr Ambedhkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, March 2004.
  • Pickling & Chrome Tanning- Theory and Cleaner Practices - Trainees from Leather and Leather Products Institute, Ethopia, CLRI, Chennai, Oct. 2004.
  • Paradigm Shift in Leather making from Chemical to Bio-Processing: An Enzyme Based Fibre Opening - Expert committee on CSIR Network Program, Jan 2005.
  • Direct Chrome Liquor Recycling - Expert committee from ACIAR, Australia, Jan 2005.
  • Biobased Leather Processing for Cleaner Environment - Training Program on Cleaner Technologies in Leather manufacture, RANITEC CETP, Ranipet, June 2005.
  • Chrome Management Techniques in Leather Processing - Training Program on Cleaner Technologies in Leather manufacture, RANITEC CETP, Ranipet, June 2005.
  • Chrome Management in Wet Blue - Second Leather Chemical Fair 2005, Organised by Erode Tanning Chemicals Merchants Association, June 2005.
  • New Developments in Leather Processing - Tanners of SIPCOT, Perandurai, Erode, July 2005.
  • Process and Quality control in Leather Production - Technical Personnel during HRD program at Madhavaram CETP, Chennai, Aug 2005.
  • Theory and Practice of Chrome Tanning - Trainees from Sudan on the Orientation Program in Leather and Leather product Manufacturing, Aug 2005.
  • Towards Changing the Fundamentals of Leather Making - 42nd RC, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2006.
  • Technology Leadership and Value Engineering - Expert team of M/s Tata International Ltd., Dewas, Feb 2006.
  • Towards Changing the Fundamentals of Leather Making - Expert team of M/s Tata International Ltd., Dewas, Feb 2006.
  • Towards Changing the Fundamentals of Leather Making - Guest Lecture delivered to the B. Tech students at Annual Function, Crosslinks, March 2006
  • Technologies for Leather Chemicals - Technical team of M/s Pidilite Industries ltd., Aug 2006.
  • 3An Innovative Approach for Leather Making: Paradigm Shift from Chemical to Bioprocess - Third National Workshop on Inventors of India, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Oct 2006.
  • Cleaner Leather Processing technologies - Tanning Operation - Executive Training Program for Asst. Directors of Industries & Commerce, DIC at CLRI, Chennai, Nov 2006.
  • Biobased Leather Processing: An Interactive session - Technical staff of M/s SPIC Ltd. and M/s C Kalyanam & Co., April 2007
  • Natural Dyeing of Leathers Using Natural materials - XXVIIII IULTCS Congress, Washington DC, June 2007.
  • Biotechnology for Clean and Green Leather processing - eppiar College of Engineering, Chennai, July 2007.
  • Greener Leather processing: Technology Paradigm - DST Conference on Green Chemistry Workshop at NIPER, Chandigarh, Sep 2007.
  • Modes to Enhance the PRI of CSIR: A Study on Health Care - Leadership Development Program at Gazhiabad, Feb 2008.
  • Greener Leather processing: Technology Paradigm - CLRI-LCMA-Industry Meet organized during Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of CLRI at CLRI, May 2008.
  • Greener Leather processing: Technology Paradigm - National Seminar on Green Chemistry, Hindu College, Guntur, July 2009.
  • An Improved Ecofriendly Process for Curing o0f Hides/Skins - World Patent Day Celebrations, July 2009.
  • Polymer Based Preservation: A New Horizon in Leather Manufacture - XXX IULTCS Congress at Beijing, China, Oct 2009.
  • Greener Leather processing: Technology Paradigm - Lederinstitut Gerberschule Reutlingen (LGR), Germany, Dec 2009.
  • An Overview Presentation on Zero Emission Research Initiative – Steering Committee of CSIR Network Project, CLRI, 22nd June 2010.
  • Biotechnology for Clean and Green Leather processing - Science Club, University of Madras, 10 July 2010.
  • Greener Leather processing: New Avenues - 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, Nov 2010.
  • Green Mark - Stamp for Environment-friendly Leather Manufacturing - 45th LERIG, Chennai, Jan 2011.
  • Chrome Management: Possible Avenues for Ethiopian Leather - Staff of LIDI, Ethiopia, May 2011.
  • High End Leather Processing - Scientific Community, LERIG 2012, Jan 2012.
  • Research Initiatives for Waterless Tanning - Presented to the review committee Chaired by DG, CSIR, Aug 2012.
  • Interdisciplinary Research in Leather - Staff of LIDI, Ethiopia, November 2012
  • Leather Vision 2035 - LERIG 2012, Jan 2013.
  • TV-2035 for Leather Sector - Review Committee of TIFAC, Jan 2013, Coimbatore
  • Waterless Leather Processing: Snooping Through Green Chemistry - Symposium on “Exploring New Domains in Chemistry”, CRSI, Chennai Chapter, 12 August 2013, CLRI, Chennai
  • Leather Processing without water: Possibilities - National Seminar on Chemistry Education and Research & National Convention of Chemistry Teachers (NCCT-13), Nov 8- 10, 2013,Annamalia University, Chidambaram
  • Effect of Ionic liquids on type I collagen at different hierarchical ordering - World Biotechnology Congress, 10-12 Feb, 2014, Dubai.
  • Importance of basic Sciences - Inaugural Lecture delivered to the science students of the city during Science Fair at Stella Maris College, Feb 2014.
  • Eco-friendly Technology for Enhancing Water Economy in leather Processing – X AICLST 2014, November 23-26, Okayama, Japan.
  • Science for Nation Building - Inaugural Lecture delivered to the Engineering students of the Prince Engineering College, Chennai, 2 Feb 2015.
External Funded Projects
  1. Cleartan CR – To develop a high exhaust chrome tanning salt for M/s Golden Chemicals Ltd., Bombay., 1991-1996.
  2. TNO-CLRI Cooperation Programme– To strengthen the Indian leather sector in the field of environmental technology, 1993-1997.
  3. Chrome Recovery/Reuse – To develop a chrome recovery/reuse methodology for wool-on sheep skin tannery for M/s Hindustan Lever Ltd., Mumbai,1996.
  4. Leather Technology Mission – To provide a technology driven development program to Indian leather sector, 1998-2000.
  5. Clarichrome & Claritan AL – To develop know-how packages for the manufacture of modified BCS and an aluminium syntan for M/s Quinn Group of Companies, Hyderabad, 1996.
  6. Asian Peroxides Ltd. – Feasibility study on the use of hydrogen peroxide for the reduction of BOD and COD in tannery effluents, 1996
  7. Golden Chemicals Ltd. – Evaluation studies on basic chromium sulfate, 1997-1998.
  8. UNDP-Calcutta Project – To implement cleaner technologies in the tanneries at Calcutta,1999.
  9. Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd. – Technology package for synthetic tanning agents, 2001-2003.
  10. CLRI-CSIRO Collaboration Project - Salinity Reduction In Tannery Effluents In India And Australia (ACIAR Funded Project), 2005-2008.
  11. CSIR-Anna University Project - Extraction of valuable or high value added proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from hides/skins and related effluents, 2004-2007.
  12. NMITLI- Biotechnology for Leather – Enzyme only process for dehairing and fibre opening towards bioprocessing of leather, 2010-2011.
  13. Sri Rakka-Chem Syntans - Standardisation of the Process for the Preparation of Basic Chromium Sulfate, 2004.
  14. SPIC Ltd. Chennai – Development of enzyme only process for dehairing and fibre opening using SPIC enzymes, 2006-2007.
  15. DST Project: Bioremediation of chromium using bacterial biofilm, CLRI-VIT Collaboration Project, 2009-2011.
  16. SPIC Ltd. Chennai – Development of single step dehairing and fibre opening using SPIC enzymes, 2010-2011.
  17. Sri Kanakadurga Chromates (P) Ltd, AP – Development of self basified basic chromium sulfate, 2011.
  18. Bench Marking Program Phase II, Ethiopia – Technology upgradation of Ethiopian Leather Industry, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia, 2010--2011.
  19. Indo-Ethiopian Twinning Program - Ccapacity building of the Leather Industry Development Institute at Ethiopia, Ministry of Industry, Ethiopia, 2011-2014.
  20. India-Vietnam Programme of Cooperation - Science and Technology on “Research cooperation on waste water treatment and application of cleaner leather manufacturing technologies”, DST, New Delhi, 2013-2015.
  21. CSIR- Annamalai University Project - Green Technology for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater, 2013-2016.
  22. Rishab Intermediates, Pondicherry – High Exhaust Chrome Tanning Salt, 2014.
  23. DBT Project: Generation of nano fibres from proteins and tannery solid waste, 2014-2017.
Patents granted
  1. Author: Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: An eco-friendly bioprocess for leather processing
    Number:US6708531, 2004; EP1565584, 2005; CN1708590, 2005; WO2004040021, 2004; AU2003274440, 2004, IN242841, 2010.

  2. Author: Subramani, S.; Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Dehairing and fibre opening for complete elimination of lime and sodium sulphide.
    Number: US6957554, 2005; WO2005049871, 2005; AU2003280066, 2005; KR1020060117339, 2006, IN238963, 2010.(Commercialized)

  3. Author: Subramani, S.; Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J. R.; Bangaru, C.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Transposed process for making leather
    Number: US7033402, 2006; EP1697548, 2006; BR0318684, 2006; AU2003298467, 2005; KR1020060127416, 2006, IN225353, 2008.

  4. Author: Chandrabose, M.; Fathima, N. N.; Kalarical, J. S.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Process for making wet pink
    Number:WO2006067540-A1, 2006 ; CN101111611-A, 2008 ; IN247593-B, 2011; US7252687-B2, 2007

  5. Author:Kanthimathi, M.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Process for the preparation of a formaldehyde free synthetic tanning agent
    Number: US7118603, 2006, EP1656460, 2006; AU2003250493, 2005, IN197556, 2008.(Commercialized)

  6. Author: Kanthimathi, M.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Process for the preparation of a synthetic aluminium tanning agent
    Number: US7169191, 2007; WO2004057036, 2004; EP1576196, 2005; CN1720337, 2006; AU2002348767, 2007, IN221968, 2008.

  7. Author: Nataraj P.; Subramani, S.; Rathinam,A.; Kalarical, J. S.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: A process for the preparation of novel synthetic tanning agent
    Number: US2008229511-A1, 2008; DE102007051378-A1, 2008; CN101270397-A, 2008; IN200700648-I1, 2008; IT1383884-B, 2010.

  8. Author:Subramani, S.; Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J. R.; Bangaru, C.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Process for the preparation of bio-tanning agent
    Number: vEP1844107, 2007; CN101090946, 2007; US20060137103, 2006, IN244982, 2010.

  9. Author: Rao, J. R.; Kalarical, J. S.; Palanisamy, T.; Nair, B. U.; Ramasami, T.
    Title: A process for the preparation of novel chromium-iron complex for use in leather industry.
    Number: IN216560, 2008.

  10. Author: vPalanisamy, T.; Rao, J.R.; Kanthimathi, M.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: An improved process for the preparation of a tanning agent.
    Number: IN217687, 2008.

  11. Author: Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J.R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: A novel three step bioprocess in leather processing,
    Number: IN225351, 2008.

  12. Author: Kalarical, J. S.; Mookandi, K.; Rao, J. R.; Ramasubbu, S.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Process for preparation of novel organometallic polymeric matrix useful as tanning agent
    Number: IN215050, 2008.

  13. Author: Palanisamy, T.; Subramani, S.; Rao, J. R.; Bangaru, C.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: An improved process for dehairing and fibre opening of hide/skin,
    Number: CN101484591, 2009; WO2008093353, 2008; DE1120070018275, 2007, 197/DEL/2007, (2005). (Commercialized)

  14. Author: Palanisamy, T.; Thiruvilan, A.M.; Bangaru, C.; Rao, J. R.;Nair, B. U.
    Title: A process for the preparation of a mixture of carbonaceous products from proteinaceous materials
    Number:WO2009016649, 2009, India Patent published,1625/DEL/2007.

  15. Author:Kanthimathi, M.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Kalarical, J. S.; Rao, J. R.; Sundaram, R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: A process for the preparation of a novel synthetic tanning agent,
    Number: IN244012, 2010 (Commercialized)

  16. Author: Subramani, S.; Palanisamy, T.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.; Thirumalachari, R.
    Title: Bio-tanning process for leather making
    Number: US7651531, 2010, IN244713, 2010.

  17. Author: Subramani, S.; Rao, J. R.; Nair, B. U.
    Title: An improved ecofriendly process for curing of hides and skins
    Number: IN200801491-I1, 2010.

List of Patents Filed (In process)
  1. Author: Sundar, J.; Gnanamani, A.; Rao, J. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Babu, N. K. C.;Mandal, A. B.
    Title: An improved denture substrate composition and a process for the preparation thereof
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 0081DEL2012)

  2. Author: Sangeetha, S; Sreeram, KJ; Raghava Rao, J; Balachandran Unni Nair
    Title: A condensate of amino resin with polysaccharide and/or polyphenol and a process for preparation thereof
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 0081DEL2012)

  3. Author: CG Jayakumar, KJ Sreeram, Aruna Dhathathreyan, J Raghava Rao, Usha Ramamurthy, B U Nair
    Title: An improved post tanning process for leather
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 3812DEL2013)

  4. Author: KJ Sreeram, S Sangeetha, CG Jayakumar, J Raghava Rao, Usha Ramamurthy, B U Nair
    Title: A novel melamine-chrome complex for leather processing and a process for the preparation there of
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 0937DEL2014)

  5. Author: M Ami, CG Jayakumar, NN Fathima, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: A process for fibre opening in leather making
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 1005DEL2014)

  6. Author: R Sathya, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: A novel organo-metallic colorant for leather and a process for the preparation thereof
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. DEL2014)

  7. Author: M Sathish, KJ Sreeram, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: An improved tanning process
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 0104DEL2014)

  8. Author: M Sathish, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: A novel retanning agent and a process for the preparation thereof
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. 2509DEL2014)

  9. Author: S Silambarasan, CG Jayakumar, P Thanikaivelan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: Tanning of skins and hides in green medium
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no.1786DEL2014)

  10. Author: P Yuvraj, NN Fathima, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: A novel activated carbon and a process for the preparation thereof
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no.DEL2015)

  11. Author: G Arun, N Vedaraman, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao
    Title: Supercritical carbon dioxide based preservation of hides and skins
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no. DEL2015)

  12. Author: CG Jayakumar, P Balasubramanin, M Vedhanayagam, R Aravindhan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair
    Title: An improved process for making retanned leather with dyeing effect
    Number: India (Indian Patent application no.DEL2015)

Publications
1987
  1. Prospects for Chromium Management in Tanneries : A Critical Review B.G.S. Prasad, B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao , N.K.Chandrababu, M.Kanthimathi and T.Ramasami Leather Sci., 34 , (7-9), 132-147, 1987.
  2. Recovery and Reuse Techniques for Chromium Salts in Tanneries J.Raghava Rao Leather Sci., 34 (10-12), 201-212, 1987.
1988
  1. Approaches to Low Waste Chrome Tanning J.Raghava Rao J. Ind. Leather Tech. Assn., 36 (8), 1988.
1989
  1. Electrodialysis in the Recovery and Reuse of Chromium in Industrial Effluents J. Raghava Rao , B.G.S.Prasad, V.Narasimhan, T.Ramasami, P.R.Shah and A.A.Khan, J. Membrane Sci., 46 , 215-224, 1989.
  2. Management of Chromium Wastes in Tanneries B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao , B.G.S.Prasad and B.C.Unni Nair J. Ind. Ass. Environ. Manag., 16 , 168-173, 1989.
1995
  1. Concentration of Sodium sulfate from Pickle Liquor of Tannery Effluent by Electrodialysis S.K.Thampy, P.K.Narayanan, D.K.Chauhan, J.J.Trivedi, V.K.Indusekhar, T.Ramasami, B.G.S.Prasad and J.Raghava Rao . Separation Science and Technology, 30 (19), 3715-3722, 1995.
1997
  1. Isolation and Characterization of Low Affinity Chromium(III) Complex in Chrome Tanning Solutions J.Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 81 , 234-238, 1997.
  2. Chromium Induced Structural Changes in Biomolecules R.Gayatri, A.Rajaram, R.Rajaram, K.Govindarajan, J.Raghava Rao, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.), 109 , 307-317, 1997.
1998
  1. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide for Tannery Waste Water Treatment KJ.Sreeram, R.Gayatri, J.Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. J.Sci.& Ind.Res., 57 , 64-69, 1998.
  2. Physico-Chemical and Structural Studies on Leathers Tanned Using High Exhaust Basic Chromium Sulphate Salt J.Raghava Rao , B.Chandrasekaran, V.Subramanian, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami. J.Am.Leather Chem.Ass., 92 , 139-147,1998.
1999
  1. Chrome Tanning: State of Art on the Material Composition and Characterisation B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao , KJ.Sreeram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. J Sci. & Ind. Res., 58 , 1-10,1999.
  2. Beamhouse and Tanning Operations : A Revisit to Process Chemistry T.Ramasami, J.Raghava Rao , N.K Chandrababu, K.Parthasarathy, P.G.Rao, P.Saravanan, R.Gayatri, and K.J.Sreeram. J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 83 , 39-45, 1999.
  3. Factors in Gravitational Settling of Chromic Hydroxide in Aqueous Media K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao, R.Venba, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 83 , 111-114, 1999.
  4. Chromium(III) Hydrolytic Oligomers: Their Relevance to Protein Binding J.Raghava Rao , R.Gayatri, Rama Rajaram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. Biochim. Biophy. Acta, 1472 , 595-602, 1999.
2000
  1. Semi-continuous Recovery of Chromium from Waste Waters K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao, R.Sundaram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. Green Chemistry , 2 , 37-41, 2000.
  2. A Novel Chromium-Iron Tanning Agent: Cross-Fertilisation in Solo Tannage P.Thanikaivelan, V.Geetha , J.Raghava Rao , K.J.Sreeram and B.Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 84 , 82-87, 2000
  3. Application of Quantum Chemical Descriptor in Quantitative Structure Activity and Structure Property Relationship. P. Thanikaivelan, V. Subramanian , J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Chem.Phys. Letters 323 , 59-70, 2000.
  4. Effect of Alkali on the Zeta Potential, Colour and Particle Size of Chromic Hydroxide K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami J.Sci & Ind.Res. , 59 , 569-574, 2000.
  5. Development of an Organo-Zirconium Complex–Organozir as Possible Alternative to Chromium K.J.Sreeram, M.Kanthimathi, J.Raghava Rao, R.Sundaram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami J.Am.Leather Chem.Ass. 95 , 324-332, 2000.
  6. Approaches Towards Elucidation of Mechanism of Tanning Using an Organo-Zirconium Complex – Organozir K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami J.Am.Leather Chem.Ass. 95 , 359-367, 2000.
  7. Novel Approaches to the Recovery of Chromium from the Chrome-containing Wastewaters of the Leather Industry S.Javed Ali, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Green Chemistry, 2 , 298-302, 2000.
  8. Development of a Leather Processing Method in Narrow pH Profile: Part 1. Standardisation of Dehairing Process P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 84 , 276-284, 2000.
2001
  1. Development of a Leather Processing Method in Narrow pH Profile: Part 2. Standardisation of Tanning Process P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 85 , 106-115, 2001.
  2. Tanning Salts based on Mixed Metal Complexes of Aluminium and Zinc B.Madhan, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Am.Leather Chem.Ass., 96 , 343-349, 2001
  3. Approach Towards Zero Discharge Tanning: Exploration of NaOH based Opening up Method P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami J.Amer.Leather Chem.Ass., 96 , 222-233, 2001.
  4. Chromium(VI) Formation: Thermal Studies on Chrome Salt and Chrome Tanned Hide Powder N.Nishad Fathima, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem.Ass., 96 , 44-449, 2001.
  5. An Improved Product-Process for Cleaner Chrome Tanning in Leather Processing V.Suresh, M.Kanthimathi, P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao and B.Unni Nair J.Clean.Prod., . 9 , 483-491, 2001.
  6. Molecular Mechanics and Dynamics Studies on the Interaction of Gallic Acid with Collagen like Peptides B. Madhan, P. Thanikaivelan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao , B.U. Nair, T. Ramasami Chem. Phys. Lett. 346 , 334-340, 2001.
2002
  1. Cleaner Chrome Tanning — Emerging Options V.J. Sundar, J . Raghava Rao , C. Muralidharan J.Clean.Prod. 10 , 69-74, 2002.
  2. Green Route for the Disposal of Chrome Shavings (Chromium Containing Solid Waste) in Tanning Industry J.Raghava Rao , P. Thanikaivelan, K.J. Sreeram and B.U Nair Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 , 1372-1376, 2002.
  3. Zero discharge tanning: A shift from chemical to biocatalytic leather processing P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 , 4187-4194, 2002.
  4. Recovery and Reuse of Chromium from Semichrome Liquors J. Raghava Rao, E. Balasubramanian, C. Padmalatha and B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 97 , 106-113, 2002.
  5. Development of Natural Colors In Cr-Fe Tanned Upper Leathers J Raghava Rao , C Prabhakar, R Rajapandian, P Thanikaivelan, J Malathi and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 97 , 267-276, 2002.
  6. A Novel Formaldehyde-free Synthetic Chrome Tanning Agent for Pickle-less Chrome Tanning: Comparative Study on Syntan Versus Modified Basic Chromium Sulfate P. Thanikaivelan, M. Kanthimathi, V. Suresh, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 97 , 127-136, 2002.
  7. Development of Natural Colors In Cr-Fe Tanned Garment Leathers J Raghava Rao , P Thanikaivelan, J Malathi, R Rajaram and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 86 , 106-111, 2002.
  8. A New Chromium-Zinc Tanning Agent: A Viable Option for Less Chrome Technology B Madhan, N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 97 , 189-196, 2002.
  9. An eco-friendly option for less-chrome and dye-free leather processing: In-situ generation of natural colors in leathers tanned with Cr-Fe complex J Raghava Rao , P Thanikaivelan and Balachandran Unni Nair Clean Techn. Environ. Policy 4 , 115-121, 2002.
  10. Eco-benign Management Options for Cleaner Chrome Tanning J.Raghava Rao , B.Chandrasekaran, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami. J Sci. & Ind. Res., 61 , 912-926, 2002.
  11. Underlying principles in chrome tanning: Part 1. Conceptual designing of pickle-less tanning W. Legesse, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 97 , 475-486, 2002.
2003
  1. Approach Towards Zero Discharge Tanning: Role of Concentration on the Development of Eco-Friendly Liming-Reliming Processes P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair, T. Ramasami J.Clean.Prod. 11 , 79-90, 2003.
  2. Density Functional Theory Based Calculations on Dipeptide-Gallic acid Interaction B. Madhan, R. Parthasarathi, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Chem. Phys. Lett. 369 , 131-138, 2003.
  3. Recouping the Wastewater: A Way Forward for Cleaner Leather Processing J. Raghava Rao , N. K. Chandrababu, C. Muralidharan, B. U. Nair, P. G. Rao and T. Ramasami J.Clean.Prod. 11 , 591-599, 2003.
  4. Studies on Tanning with Zirconium Oxychloride: Part I, Standardization of Tanning Process A. Sundarrajan, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 101-106, 2003.
  5. Studies on Tanning with Zirconium Oxychloride: Part II, Development of A Versatile Tanning System B. Madhan, A. Sundarrajan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 107-114, 2003.
  6. Mixed Metal Tanning Using Chrome–Zinc–Silica: A New Chrome-Saver Approach N. Nishad Fathima, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98, 139-146, 2003.
  7. Effect of Zirconium(IV) Complexes on the Thermal and Enzymatic Stability of Type I Collagen N.Nishad Fathima, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Inorg. Biochem. 97 , 47-54, 2003.
  8. Biointervention Makes Leather Processing Greener: An Integrated Cleansing and Tanning System P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Environ. Sci. Technol. 37 , 2609-2617, 2003.
  9. Stepping Into Third Millennium: Third Generation Leather Processing: A Three Step Tanning Technique P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 173-184, 2003.
  10. Hydration in Matrix Stabilization of Collagen Fibres: Relevance to Mechanistic Insight into Tanning B. Madhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao , V.Subramanian, B.U. Nair and T Ramasami J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 263-272, 2003.
  11. A Semi-empirical Quantum Mechanical Modeling Study on the Interaction of Collagen-like Peptides with Polyphenolic Molecules: An attempt to gain insights into vegetable tanning B. Madhan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 273-278, 2003.
  12. An Integrated Eco-Friendly Tanning Method for the Manufacture of Upper Leathers from Goatskins S Saravanabhavan , R Aravindhan, P Thanikaivelan, B Chandrasekaran, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 87 , 149-158, 2003.
  13. An Approach for the Treatment of Vegetable Tan Liquor Containing Hydrolysable Tannins A Sharli, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni nair J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 381-387, 2003.
  14. Molecular Level Understanding of Tanning using Organo-Zirconium Complex B. Madhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 98 , 445-451, 2003.
  15. Green Solution for Tannery Pollution: Effect of Enzyme Based Lime-free Unhairing and Fibre Opening in Combination with Pickle-free Chrome Tanning S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Green Chemistry, 5 , 707-714, 2003.
  16. Augmentation of Sheep Derived Properties in Goatskins for Garment Manufacture: Role of Chromium-Silica Tanning Agent N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Soc. Leather Tech. Chem. , 87 , 227-232, 2003.
2004
  1. New Millennium Leather Processing: Biomediated Three Step Tanning P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami, J. Ind. Leather Technol. Ass., 54(1) , 15-29, 2004.
  2. Bioaccumulation of Chromium from Tannery Wastewater: An Approach for Chrome Recovery and Reuse R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 , 300-306, 2004.
  3. A Bio-Driven Pickle-Free Tanning Paves Way for Greener Garment Leather Production R. Aravindhan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 53-66, 2004.
  4. An Eco-Benign Tanning System using Aluminium, Tannic Acid and Silica Combination N Nishad Fathima, S Saravanabhavan , J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 73-81, 2004.
  5. Underlying principles in chrome tanning: Part 2. Underpinning Mechanism in Pickle-free Chrome Tanning P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 82-94, 2004.
  6. Natural Leathers from Natural Materials: Progressing Towards a New Arena in Leather Processing S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B U Nair and T Ramasami Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 , 300-306, 2004.
  7. Progress and Recent Trends in Biotechnological Methods for Leather Processing Palanisamy Thanikaivelan, J R. Rao , Balachandran U. Nair and Thirumalachari Ramasami Trends Biotechnol., 22 (4), 181-188, 2004.
  8. Mixed Metal Complexes of Zirconium: A Step Towards Reducing Usage of Chromium in Tanning K. J. Sreeram, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 99 ,112-120, 2004.
  9. Combination of White Minerals with Natural Tannins: Chrome-Free Tanage for Garment Leathers S Saravanabhavan , N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 88 , 76-81, 2004.
  10. Role of Phenolic Compounds in the Stabilisation of Collagen B. Madhan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao , B.U. Nair and T. Ramasami J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 157-163, 2004.
  11. Tanning Studies with Basic Chromium Sulfate Prepared Using Chrome Shavings As a Reductant: A Call For ‘Wealth from Waste' Approach to Tanning Industry J. Raghava Rao , P. Thanikaivelan, K. J. Sreeram and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 170-176, 2004.
  12. Bioaccumulation Route for Secured Recovery and Recoup of Chromium from Tannery Wastewaters R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 99 , 197-204, 2004.
  13. Pickle-Free Chrome Tanning Using Polymeric Synthetic tanning agent for Cleaner Leather Processing J. Raghava Rao , M. Kanthimathi, P. Thanikaivelan, K. J. Sreeram, R. Ramesh, S. Ramalingam, N. K. Chandrababu, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Clean Techn. Environ. Policy, 6 , 243-249, 2004.
  14. Studies on the Development of Pickle-less Vegetable Tanning S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 99 , 281-288, 2004.
  15. The Three Pot Solution for Chromium, Tannins and Solid Wastes: Recovery and Reuse Technique for Spent Semi-Chrome Liquor and Chrome Shaving S Saravanabhavan , K J Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem., 88 , 202-207, 2004.
  16. Recovery and Reuse of Chromium from Tannery Wastewaters Using Turbinaria Ornato Seaweed R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Chem. Tech. & BioTech., 79 , 1251-1258, 2004.
  17. Use of Chromium-Collagen Wastes for the Removal of Tannins from Wastewaters KJ Sreeram, S Saravanabhavan , J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Ind. Engg. Chem. Res., 43 , 5310-5317, 2004.
  18. Interaction of Aldehydes with Collagen: Effect on Thermal, Enzymatic and Conformational Stability N. Nishad Fathima, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 34 , 241-247, 2004.
  19. Development of Integrated Wet Finishing Process: Manufacture of Garment Leathers, T. Ayyasamy, P. Thanikaivelan, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair, J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass., 99 , 367-375, 2004.
2005
  1. A Source Reduction Approach: Integrated bio-based tanning methods and the role of enzymes in dehairing and fibre opening S. Saravanabhavan, R. Aravindhan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami Clean Techn. Environ. Policy, 7 , 3-14, 2005.,
  2. Recent Trends in Leather Making: Processes, Problems and Pathways P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami Crit. Rev. Env. Sci. Technol. ,35, 37-79, 2005.
  3. An Integrated Approach for the Treatment of Vegetable Bearing Tannery Wastewaters B Madhan, KJ Sreeram, A Sharli, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 89 , 9-14, 2005.
  4. Studies on the Development of Integrated Rechroming-Neutralization-Post Tanning Process: Manufacture of Upper Leathers from Goatskins T Ayyasamy, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. (In Press)
  5. Solid Waste Removes Toxic Liquid Waste: Adsorption of Chromium(VI) by Iron Complexed Protein Waste N. Nishad Fathima , R. Aravindhan , J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Env. Sci. Tech. (In Press)
  6. An Enzymatic Pre-Tanning Process Coupled with Semi-Metal Tanning and Eco-Benign Post Tanning Leads to Cleaner Leather Production S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  7. Studies on the Integration of Chrome Tanning and Wet Finishing Process for Making Garment Leathers P. Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  8. Studies on Iron-Phosphonium Combination Tanning: Towards Win-Win Approach M Chandrabose, N Nishad Fathima, R. Aravindhan , J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (InPress)
  9. irect Chrome Liquor Recycling Under Indian Conditions: Part 1. Role Of Chromium Species on the Quality of the Leather KJ Sreeram, R Ramesh, J Raghava Rao , Nk Chandrababau, B. U. Nair and T Ramasami J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  10. Direct Chrome Liquor Recycling Under Indian Conditions: Part 2. Pilot Scale Tanning Studies KJ Sreeram, R Ramesh, S Ramalingam , J Raghava Rao , NK Chandrababau, B. U. Nair and T Ramasami J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  11. Integrated Chrome Free Upper Leather Processing-Part-I: Selection Of Tanning System B.Madhan, R.Narasimman, S.Gunasekaran, S.Sadulla and J.Raghava Rao J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  12. Integrated Chrome Free Upper Leather Processing-Part-II: Standardization And Evaluation Of Vegetable - Aluminium Tanning System B.Madhan, S.Gunasekaran, R.Narasimman, J.Raghava Rao and S.Sadulla J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. (In Press)
  13. Silicate Enhanced Enzymatic Dehairing: A New Lime-Sulfide Free Process for Cowhides Subramani Saravanabhavan, Palanisamy Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao a nd Balachandran Unni Nair Env. Sci. Tech. (In press)
  14. Stabilization of collagen using plant polyphenol: Role of catechin B. Madhan , V. Subramanian J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair , T. Ramasami Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 37, 47-53, 2005.
  15. An One Bath Chrome Tanning Together with Wet Finishing Process for Reduced Water Usage and Discharge S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Clean Tech. Environ. Policy (In press)
2006
  1. Reversing the Conventional Leather Processing Sequence for Cleaner Leather Production S Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair and T Ramasami Env. Sci. Tech. 40, 1069-1075, 2006.
  2. Wet White Leathers: A New Combination Tanning System N Nishad Fathima, T Prem Kumar, D Ravi Kumar, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Am. Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 58-65, 2006.
  3. High Exhaust Chrome-Aluminium Combination Tanning: Part 1. Optimization of Tanning KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, N K Chandrababu, B U Nair and T Ramasami J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 86-95, 2006.
  4. A New Leather Making Process for Meeting Eco-Label Standards: Processing of Goat Skins S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 192-205, 2006.
  5. Utilization of Calcium Alginate Beads as Adsorbent for Removal of Dyes from Tannery Wastewaters R. Aravindhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 223-230, 2006.
  6. Interaction of Aluminium and Hydrolysable Tannin Polyphenols: Approach to Understanding the Mechanism of Aluminium Vegetable Combination Tannage B Madhan, R Aravindhan, M S Siva, S Sadulla, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 317-323, 2006.
  7. Tannic Acid-Phosphonium Combination: A Versatile Chrome-Free Organic Tanning R. Aravindhan, N. N. Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 101, 161-168, 2006.
  8. Single Step Hair Removal and Fiber Opening Process: Simultaneous and Successive Addition of Protease and -Amylase P. Thanikaivelan, C. K. Bharath, S. Saravanabhavan, C. Anandhi, J. Raghava Rao>, B. Chandrasekaran and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 101, 388-398, 2006.
  9. Phase Equilibrium Compositions, Densities and Viscosities of Aqueous Two-Phase Poly (Ethylene Glycol) – Poly (Acrylic Acid) System at Various Temperatures S Saravanan, J A Reena, J Raghava Rao, T Murugesan and Balachandran Unni Nair Chem. Engg. Data, 51, 1246-1249, 2006.
  10. Wet Oxidation of Acid Brown Dye by Hydrogen Peroxide Using Heterogeneous Catalyst Mn- Salen-Y Zeolite: A Potential Catalyst R. Aravindhan, N. N. Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair J Hazardous Materials. B138, 152-159, 2006.
  11. Stabilisation of Type 1 Collagen against Collagenases (Type 1) and Thermal Degradation Using Iron Complex N Nishad Fathima, M Chandra Bose, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J. Inorg. Biochem.100, 1774-1780, 2006.
  12. Recovery of Value Added Globular Proteins from Tannery Wastewaters Using PEG-Salt Aqueous Two-Phase System S Saravanan, J Raghava Rao, T Murugesan, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami J Chem. Tech. Biotech. 81, 1814-1819, 2006.
  13. Studies on the Stabilization of Collagen Using Dialdehyde Starch : Part I. Effect of Autoclaving on Dialdehyde Starch Swarna V Kanth, B Madhan, J.Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair, S.Sadulla and T Ramasami J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 101, 444-453, 2006.
2007
  1. Partition of Tannery Wastewater Proteins in Aqueous Two-phase Poly(ethyleneglocol)- Magnesium Sulfate Systems: Effects of Molecular Weights and pH S. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao, T. Murugesan, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Chem. Engg. Sci., 62, 969-978, 2007.
  2. A Chemoenzymatic Pathway Leads Towards Zero Discharge Tanning Process R. Aravindhan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Clean. Prodn. 15,1217-1227, 2007 .
  3. Biodegradability of Leathers through Anaerobic Pathway K.Dhayalan, N.Nishad Fathima, A.Gnanamani, J.Raghava Rao, B.Unni Nair and T Ramasami Waste Management, 27, 760-767, 2007.
  4. Integrated Hair Removal and Fiber Opening Process Using Mixed Enzymes P. Thanikaivelan, C. K. Bharath, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and Balachandran Unni Nair Clean Tech. Environ. Policy, 9, 61-68, 2007.
  5. Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies on Biosorption of Basic Blue Dye by Green Macro Algae Caulerpa scalpelliformis R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J Environ. Safety Health –Part A, 42, 621-631, 2007.
  6. Removal of basic yellow dye from aqueous solution by sorption on green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair J Hazardous Materials, 142, 68-76, 2007.
  7. Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies on the Removal of Basic Black Dye Using Calcium Alginate Beads R. Aravindhan, N N Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Colloids Surf. 209, 232-238, 2007.
  8. Role of Green tea polyphenols in the Inhibition of collagenolytic activity by Collagenase B. Madhan, J . Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 41,16-22, 2007.
  9. Combination Tanning Based on Tara: An Attempt to Make Chrome-Free Garment Leathers B. Madhan, R. Aravindhan, N. Ranjithakumar, V. Venkiah, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair J Amer Leather Chem Assoc., 102, 198-204, 2007.
  10. The Use of Toxic Solid Waste for the Adsorption of Dyes from Waste Streams S. Saravanabhavan, K. J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J Chem. Tech. Biotech, 82, 407-413, 2007.
  11. Effect of UV irradiation on the physico-chemical properties of collagen stabilized using aldehydes N. Nishad Fathima, R. Suresh, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Appl. Poly. Sci., 104, 3642-3648, 2007.
  12. Wet Pink Leather: A Way Forward for Tanning N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 91, 154-158, 2007.
  13. Biological Removal of Carcinogenic Chromium(VI) using Mixed Pseudomonas Strains R. Aravindhan, K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J. Gen. App. Microbiol., 53, 71-79, 2007.
  14. Development of Formaldehyde Free Leathers in Perspective of Retanning: Part1 Benchmarking for the Evolution of Single Syntan System P Thanikaivelan, S Saravanabhavan, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran unni Nair J Amer Leather Chem Assoc., 102, 306-314, 2007.
  15. An Eco-efficient Rationalized Leather Process S. Saravanabhavan, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 82, 971-984, 2007.
  16. Factors Influencing the Activity of Enzymes and their Kinetics: Bioprocessing of Skin M. Madhumathi, Srinija Cheerla, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, N. K. Chandra Babu and Balachandran Unni Nair Appl. Biochem. Biotech., 136, 265-278, 2007.
  17. Dialdehyde Alginic Acid- A Novel Biopolymeric Tanning Agent Swarna V. Kanth, M. Nirenjana, T.N. Archana, B. Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair, S. Sadulla and T Ramasami J Amer Leather Chem Assoc. 102, 353-361, 2007.
  18. Role of green tea polyphenols crosslinking in alleviating ultra violet effects on collagen N. Nishad Fathima, T. Ansari, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair J Appl Poly. Sci. 106, 3382-3386, 2007.
  19. Studies on Tanning with Natural Polymeric Materials Part I: An Ecofriendly Tanning System using Dialdehyde Sodium Alginate Swarna V. Kanth, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair , S. Sadulla and T. Ramasami J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 91, 2007.
2008
  1. A Modified Leather Processing Method for Water and Pollution Reduction in Tannery S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J. Am. Leather. Chem. Assoc. 103, 24-35, 2008.
  2. Studies on Tanning with Natural Polymeric Materials PART II: Efficiency of Dialdehyde Sodium Alginate as a Bi-functional Cross-linking Agent Swarna V. Kanth, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 92, 65-70, 2008.
  3. Dye House Wastewater Treatment Through Advanced Oxidation Process Using Cu-Exchanged Y Zeolite: A Heterogenous Catalytic Approach N N Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and B Unni Nair Chemosphere 70, 1146-1151, 2008.
  4. Natural Dyeing of Leathers Using Natural materials J. Raghava Rao, A. Prakash, E. Thangaraj, K. S. Saravanabhavan, KJ Sreeram, P Saravanaan and B. U. Nair J. Am. Leather. Chem. Assoc. 103, 68-75, 2008
  5. Effect of UV irradiation on Stabilized Collagen: Role of Chromium(III) N. Nishad Fathima, R. Suresh, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair and T. Ramasami Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 62, 11-16, 2008.
  6. Glove leather manufacture from sheep skins: Influence of fatliquor and syntans on the gloving properties B. Madhan, G. Balaji, R. Aravindhan, Swarna V Kanth, S. Sadulla and J Raghava Rao J. Am. Leather. Chem. Assoc. 103, 143-151, 2008.
  7. Sodium Metasilicate Based Fibre Opening for Greener Leather Processing S. Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Environ. Sci. Tech. 42, 1731-1739, 2008.
  8. Stabilization of Collagen by the Plant Phenolics Acacia mollissima and Terminalia chebula C. Krishnamoorthy, B. Madhgan, S. Sadulla, J Raghava Rao and W Madhulatha J Appl. Poly. Sci., 108, 199-205, 2008.
  9. Synergistic effect of Pseudomanas Aeruginosa and Escherichia Coli in the Biodegradation of phenolic compounds A Aravindhan, A Giridhar, Naveen Nagaiah, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J. Am. Leather. Chem. Assoc. 103, 186-190, 2008.
  10. Upgradation of Leathers: Masking Defects using Pigments in Pre-Finishing Processes R Aravindhan, B Madhan, P Thanikaivelan, Swarna V Kanth, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair, C S Gnanasekaran, Getachew Tuta J Sci Ind. Res., 67, 233-238, 2008.
  11. Development of Formaldehyde Free Leathers in Perspective of Retanning: Part II. Combination of Formaldehyde Free Retanning System Ram Mohan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Clean Tech. Environ. Policy 10, 287-294, 2008.
  12. A Potential New Commercial Method for Processing Leather to Reduce Environmental Impact S. Saravanabhavan, J. R. Rao and B. U. Nair Environ. Sci. Pollu. Res. 15, 293-295, 2008.
  13. Performance and Eco-Impact of Reverse Processed Hair Sheep Gloving Leather S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair, T. Ramasami and Dennis C. Shelly J. Am. Leather. Chem. Assoc. 103, 303-313, 2008.
  14. Enymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Opening V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, P. Saravanan J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami J Amer Leather Chem Assoc. 103, 167-172, 2008.
  15. Aqueous Two-Phase Poly (Ethylene Glycol) – Poly (Acrylic Acid) System for Protein Partitioning: Influence of Molecular Weight, pH and Temperature S Saravanan, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Process Biochemistry, 43, 905-911, 2008.
  16. Consequence of UV Irradiation on the zirconium tanned collagen: A Molecular level study N Nishad Fathima, C Pragadhish, B Purushothaman, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 103, 422-427, 2008.
2009
  1. Bio-treatment of Tannery Effluent Part I - Removal of Na+ and Cl- Using Soil-plant System by Sesuvium Portulacastrum Swarna V. Kanth, P. Ramesh Kannan, A. Tamil Selvi, P. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair, R. Rengaswamy J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 17-24, 2009.
  2. Bio-treatment of Tannery Effluent Part II: Preservation Sans Salt Using Sesuvium Portulacastrum Swarna V. Kanth, S. Preethi, B. Keerthi, A. Tamil Selvi, P. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 25-32, 2009.
  3. Studies on Use of Rare Earth Salts for Tanning K Dhayalan, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, BU Nair Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 68, 135-139, 2009.
  4. An Organic Approach For Wet White Garment Leathers M Pradeep Kumar, N Nishad Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 112-118, 2009.
  5. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Marine Macro Algal Biomass R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, BU Nair Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162, 688-694, 2009.
  6. Application of Chemically Modified Seaweed as Biosorbent for Phenolic Compounds R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, BU Nair Journal of Environmental Management, 90, 1877-1883, 2009.
  7. Coloring of Leather Using Henna - Natural Alternative Material for Dyeing A.E Musa, B. Madhan, W. Madhulatha, J. Raghava Rao, G.A. Gasmelseed and S. Sadulla J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 183-190, 2009.
  8. Studies on the Development of Multifunctional Syntan R. Natraj, R. Aravindhan, K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao , B.U. Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 251-260, 2009.
  9. Molecular Dynamics Investigations on the Effect of D-Amino Acid Substitution in Triple Helix Structure and Stability of Collagen V. Punitha, S. Sundar Raman, R. Parthasarathi, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair† and T. Ramasami J. Phy. Chem. B, 113, 8983-8992, 2009.
  10. Stabilization of type I collagen using dialdehyde cellulose S V Kanth, A Ramaraj, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Process Biochem. 44, 869-874, 2009.
  11. tudies on Combination Tanning based on Henna and Oxazolidine A.E Musa, B. Madhan, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and G.A. Gasmelseed J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 335-343, 2009.
  12. Chemical degradation of melanin in enzyme based dehairing and fibre opening of buff calfskins V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair Clean Tech. Environ. Policy, 11, 299-306, 2009.
  13. Utilization of organically stabilized proteinous solid waste for t6he treatement of coloured wastewater N Nishad Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 84, 1338-1343, 2009.
  14. Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies on the Biosorption of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions using Bacillus subtilis Biomass A Sivaprakash, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 7(1), 4557, 2009.
  15. Phytoremediation of tannery wastewater treated lands: Part 1: Accumulation of Na+ and Cl– in Salicornia brachiata P. Ramesh Kannan, S V Kanth, B.Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao, CS.Gnanasekaran, R. Rengasamy J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 93, 233-239, 2009.
  16. Phytoremediation of tannery wastewater treated lands Part 2: Reusing harvested Salicornia brachiata plants for the preservation of sheep skins P. Ramesh Kannan, S. Deepa, A. Yasothai, Swarna V. Kanth, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran J.Soc.Leather Technol.Chem. 93, 240-244, 2009.
  17. Studies on the use of sesuvium portulacastrum - Part III: Growth and ion accumulation in tannery wastewater discharged lands P. Ramesh Kannan, S. Deepa, Swarna V Kanth, J. Raghava Rao, C.S. Gnanasekaran, R. Rengasamy J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 104, 416-422, 2009.
2010
  1. Biosorption of cadmium metal ion from simulated wastewaters using Hypnea valentiae biomass: A kinetic and thermodynamic study R Aravindhan B Mahrishi, KJ Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Bioresource Technol. 101, 1466-1470, 2010.
  2. A DSC Investigation on the Changes in Pore Structure of Skin during Leather Processing N Nishad Fathima, M Pradeep Kumar, J Raghava Rao , B U Nair Thermo chemica ACTA, 501, 98-102, 2010.
  3. Cost Effective Fixing Process for Post Tanning Operation N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 105, 100-106, 2010.
  4. Studies on the Removal of Inter-fibrillary Materials Part-I: Removal of Protein, Proteoglycan, Glycosoaminoglycans from Conventional Beamhouse Process B. Madhan, M. Dineshkumar, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 105, 145-149, 2010.
  5. Studies on the Removal of Inter-fibrillary Materials Part-II: Removal of Protein, Proteoglycan, Glycosoaminoglycans from Biobased Beamhouse Process B. Madhan, M. Dineshkumar, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 105, 182-189, 2010.
  6. A Novel Approach Towards Preservation of Skin K C Kannan, M Pradeep Kumar, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 105, 361-369, 2010.
  7. Preparation and antimicrobial activity of scleraldehyde from Schizophyllum commune G C Jayakumar, Swarna V. Kanth, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao and B.U.Nair Carbohydrate Res. 345, 22134-2219, 2010.
  8. Cleaner Tanning Process for the Manufacture of Upper Leathers A.E Musa, B. Madhan, Swarna V Kanth, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, G.A. Gasmelseed Clean Technology Environmental Policy, 12, 381-388, 2010.
  9. Development of Natural Garment Leathers: A Metal Free Approach K.J. sreeram, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and B.U. Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 105, 401-405, 2010.
2011
  1. Novel Approach towards Recovery of Glycosaminoglycans from Tannery Wastewater J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Bioresource Tecchnol. 102, 872-878, 2011.
  2. Combination Tanning System Based on Dialdehyde Alginic Acid: An Ecofriendly Organic Approach G C Jayakumar, I.Santana Bala, Swarna V. Kanth, B. Chandrasekaran, J.R.Rao and B.U.Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 50-58, 2011.
  3. Studies on the Henna-Glutaraldehyde combination tanning system A.E Musa, B. Madhan, R. Aravindhan, Swarna V Kanth, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran, G.A. Gasmelseed J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 92-101, 2011.
  4. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Lawsonia inermis (henna) against Microbial Strains Isolated from Goat Skin/Leather A.E Musa, A. Tamil selvi, R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, Aafreen Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B.Chandrasekaran J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 170-175, 2011.
  5. Green Chemistry Approach In Leather processing: A Case of Chrome Tanning M. Pradeep Kumar, R. Aravindhan, K J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and B Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 113-120, 2011.
  6. Henna–Aluminum Combination Tannage: A Greener Alternative tanning system A.E Musa, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao, Swarna V Kanth, G.A. Gasmelseed J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 190-191, 2011.
  7. Stabilized protein waste as a source for removal of color from wastewaters N Nishad Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 1397-1402, 2011.
  8. Chromium(III) Pigments: Use Of Leather Wastes As Alternative Starting Material K J Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 219-225, 2011.
  9. Studies on phosphonium based combination tanning: less chrome approach N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass., 106, 249-256, 2011.
  10. Calorimetric analysis of gelatine–glycosaminoglycans blend system Ivy Kanungo,Nisha Chellappa,N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 49, 289-296, 2011.
  11. Adsorption of phenol onto activated carbon from seaweed: Determination of the optimal experimental parameters using factorial design R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, BU Nair J Taiwan Ins Chem. Engg. 42, No.6, 952-956, 2011.
  12. Effect of UV irradiation on the physico-chemical properties of ironcrosslinked collagen N N Fathima , J Raghava Rao, B U Nair J Photochem. Photobiol., 105, 203-206, 2011.
  13. Recovery and utilization of chromium tanned proteinous wastes of leather making- a review V. J. Sundar, J Raghava Rao, C. Muralidharan, and A. B. Mandal Crit. Rev. Env. Sci. Technol., 41, 2048-2075, 2011.
2012
  1. Role of Biopolymer as a Stabilizing Agent for Collagen Scaffold Preparation: A new-fangled Rationale of Scleraldehyde G C Jayakumar, S V Kanth, K Purna Sai,B Chandrasekaran, J Raghava Rao,, B U Nair Carbohydr. Polymer, 87, 1482-1489, 2012.
  2. Trivalent chromium removal from tannery effluent using kaolin supported bacterial biofilm of Bacillus sp isolated from chromium polluted soil Aafreen Fathima, J Raghava Rao, and B. U. Nair J Chem. Tech. Biotech. 87, 271-279, 2012.
  3. Eco-benign enzymatic dehairing of goat skins utilizing protease from Pseudomonas fluorescens species isolated from fish visceral wastes K Nadiya, V Punitha, S Amsamani, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran and P Thanikaivelan J Cleaner Prod. 25, 27-33, 2012.
  4. Tuning Properties of Collagen – Guar Gum Scaffolds for Bionmedical Applications M Reshme, Ivy Kanungo, NN Fathima, J Raghava Rao Carbohydr Polymer, 88, 628-637,2012.
  5. Adsorption, Desorption and Kinetic study on Cr(III) removal from aqueous solution using Bacillus subtilis biomass R. Aravindhan, A Fathima, M. Selvamurugan, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Clean Tech Environ. Policy, 14, 727-735, 2012.
  6. Tannery solid waste to treat toxic liquid wastes: a new paradigm N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair Environ. Engg. Sci. 29 (3), 363-372, 2012.
  7. Studies on the Development of Leathers from Formaldehyde-free Melamine Syntan S V Kanth, G.C. Jayakumar, S. C. Ramkuma, B. Chandrasekaran, J. Raghava Rao, B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass. 107, 106-112, 2012.
  8. Stimuli Responsive Leathers using Smart Retanning Agents S. Sangeetha, N. Nishad Fathima, K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao, B.U. Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 107, 196-204, 2012.
  9. Molecular Understanding of Collagen Stabilization: Interaction of Valeraldehyde with Collagen. Usharani, G. C Jayakumar, S V Kanth, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran J Macromol Sci Pure Appl Chem. 49, 666-673, 2012.
  10. Quality Enhancement of Low Grade Wet Blue Leathers: Upgradation of Thin Substance in Wet End Process K. Gowthaman, S. Vikram, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 107, 292-301, 2012.
  11. Combined Advanced Oxidation Processes and Aerobic Biological Treatment for Synthetic Fatliquor Used in Tanneries C. Kalyanaraman, K. Sri Bala Kameswari, L. Vidya Devi, S. Porselvam and J. Raghava Rao Ind. Engg. Chem. Res., 51, 5310-5317, 2012.
  12. Structural and thermodynamic analysis of D-Amino Acid Substitution in Tetrameric Collagen l like Peptide Punitha Velmurugan, Raghava Rao Jonnalagadda, Balachandran Unni Nair Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 11/2012; 3(7):900-908.
2013
  1. Studies on the application of natural dye extract from Bixa orellana seeds for dyeing and finishing of leather A. Tamil Selvi a, R. Aravindhanb, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao Industrial Crops and Products 43, 84– 86, 2013.
  2. Biodegradation of Lecithin-based Fatliquor: Optimization of Food to Mic robes Ratio and Residence Time C. Kalyanaraman, K. Sri Bala Kameswari, V. S Varma, R. Priyadharsini, J Raghava Rao J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 108, 1-10, 2013.
  3. Studies on biodegradation of vegetable based fat liquor-containing wastewater from tanneries C. Kalyanaraman, K. Sri Bala Kameswari, V. Sudharsan Varma, Sahil Tagra, J. Raghava Rao Clean Techn Environ Policy, 15, 633–642, 2013.
  4. Dielectric behaviour of Gelatine-Glycosaminoglycans blends: An Impedance analysis Ivy Kanungo, N Nishad Fathima and J Raghava Rao Materials Science and Engineering: C, 33, 2455–2459, 2013.
  5. Dry Ice – An effective auxiliary for pollution reduction in leather manufacture M. Sathish, B. Madhan, P. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao, and B. Unni Nair J Cleaner Prod., 54, 289-295, 2013.
  6. Studies on selective defect identification of crust leathers for computer aided grading S. Nithiyanantha Vasagam1, B. Madhan, B. Chandrasekaran and J. Raghava Rao J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 108, 210-220, 2013.
  7. Hydration dynamics of collagen-PVA composites: Thermoporometric and Impedance analysis Ivy Kanungo, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Materials Chem. Phys. 140, 357-364, 2013.
  8. Influence of PCL on thematerial properties of collagen based biocomposites and in vitro evaluation of drug release Ivy Kanungo, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Materials Chem. Phys. C, 33, 4651–4659, 2013.
  9. Studies on the molecular significance in the interaction of bilirubin with collagen N Usharani, GC Jayakumar, B Chandrasekarana, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair, K Kawakami Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 61, 404– 410, 2013.
  10. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of EDC treated rattus type I collagen V Punitha, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Process Biochem. 48,1059–1064, 2013.
  11. Molecular insight of non enzymatic glycosylation of collagen-therapeutic perspective of dietary carbohydrates GC Jayakumar, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 2, 119-125, 2013.
  12. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effects of methanolic extract of Salicornia brachiata L. in HepG2 cells S Deepa, R K Perumal, S V Kanth, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci., 4(3), 1-6, 2013.
  13. Studies on the chemico-biological characteristics of bilirubin binding with collagen N Usharani, J G Christopher, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran, Unni Nair Balachandran Materials Science and Engineering C 33 (2013) 4965–4971.
  14. In vitro’ evaluation of the antioxidant activity in relation with structure and kinetic properties of scleraldehyde:N. Usharani, G.C. Jayakumar, S. V. Kanth, J Raghava Rao Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 2, 22-29, 2013.
  15. Identification of Bilirubin Binding Site in Type I Collagen N Usharani, G C Jayakumar, Swarna V. Kanth, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran, Balachandran Unni Nair Int J Pept Res Ther, 19(4), 357-364, 2013.
2014
  1. Elucidation of Hydration Dynamics of Locust Bean Gum-Collagen Composites by Impedance and Thermoporometry. Kanungo I, Fathima NN; Rao JR, Nair BU Carbohydrate Poly.,103, 250–260, 2014.
  2. Method of addition of acetonitrile influences the structure and stability of collagen S Ganesh, S Murali Mohan Reddy, B Madhan and J Raghava Rao Process Biochem., 9, 210–216, 2014.
  3. Studies on Ethiopian sheep skins as an opportunity for value addition part I: Histological, microscopic and chemical characterization of abyssinian and wanke sheep skins H. Mohammed, G. Aysanew, R Aravindhan, A Gnanamani, J Raghava Rao, NK Chandrababu J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 109, 76-81, 2014.
  4. Development of alginate-chitosan based biopolymers for leather retanning R. Aravindhan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 109, 99-109, 2014.
  5. Studies of Ethiopian sheepskins as an opportunity for value addition part II - Optimization and characterization of wanke upper and garment leathers H. Mohammed, G Aysanew, R. Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and NK Chandrababu J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 109, 161-169, 2014.
  6. Effect of ionic liquids on the different hierarchical order of type I collagen Ami Mehta, J Raghava Rao and N Nishad Fathima Colloids and Surfaces B – Biointerfaces, 117, 376–382, 2014.
  7. Investigation on interaction of tannic acid with type I collagen and its effect on thermal, enzymatic and conformational stability for tissue engineering applications. V Punitha, E R Singam, J Raghava Rao, V Subramanian Biopolymers 101, 471–483, 2014.
  8. A Microscopic Evaluation of Collagen-bilirubin Interactions: In Vitro Surface Phenomenon N Usharani, G C Jayakumar, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran, Balachandran Unni Nair Journal of Microscopy, 253, 109-118, 2014
  9. Stabilization of Collagen through Bioconversion: An Insight in Protein-Protein Interaction , N.Usharani, G C Jayakumar, S V Kanth and J Raghava Rao Biopolymers 101 (8), 903-911, 2014.
  10. Green Solution for Salinity in Tannery Wastewater: A Step Forward in Leather Processing S. Saravanabhavan, V. Punitha, J. Raghava Rao B. U. Nair, T Ramasami J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 109, 214-223, 2014.
  11. Reuse of Solid Waste from Juice Industry (Citrus sinensis peel) in the Extraction of Antioxidants with Enhanced Activity through Polymer Encapsulates for the Preservation of Skin M Pradeep Kumar, V Punitha, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair, J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass., 109, 231-238, 2014.
  12. Can green solvents be alternatives for thermal stabilization of collagen? Ami Mehta, J Raghava Rao and N Nishad Fathima Int. J Biol. Macro., 69, 361–368, 2014.
  13. Mapping the porosity of leathers made from different animal species M Sathish, J Raghava Rao, N Nishad Fathima J Appl Poly. Sci., 31 (19) 40835 (1 of 13), 2014.
  14. Kinetics of Biodegradation of Phenol and a Polyphenolic Compound by a Mixed Culture Containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis R. Aravindhan, N. Naveen, G. Anand, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 12 (3) 615-625, 2014.
  15. Solving vein marks defects problem through wet end process K. Gowthaman, S. Vikram, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 109, 278-283, 2014.
  16. Effect of aqueous ethanol on the triple helical structure of collagen A Gopinath, S Murali Mohan Reddy, B Madhan, GShanmguam, J Raghava Rao Eur Biophys J., 43: 4, 32004- 2014.
  17. Cool glove leathers made using thermoresponsive syntans A. Jaya prakash, M. Ragul, J. Raghava Rao and N. Nishad fathima J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 109, 411-417, 2014.
  18. Antibacterial activity of copper(II) complexes against Staphylococcus aureus S Rajalakshmi, Aafreen Fathima, J Raghava Rao and B Unni Nair RSC Adv. 4, 32004–32012, 2014.
  19. Preparation of antibacterial collagen-pectin particles for biotherapeutics GC Jayakumar, N Usharani, K Kawakami, J Raghava Rao and, B U Nair RSC Adv. 4, 42846-42854, 2014.
  20. Rapid hydrogenation: perfect quasi architecture (Ag@SiO2NPs) as a substrate for nitrophenol reduction Sathya Ramalingam, L Bhavani Devi, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair RSC Adv. 4, 56041-56051, 2014.
  21. Studies on the physico-chemical characteristics of collagen–pectin composites GC Jayakumar, N Usharani, K Kawakami, J Raghava Rao and B UNair RSC Adv. 4, 63840-63849, 2014.
  22. Cohesive system for enzymatic unhairing and fibre opening: Architecture towards Eco-beign pretanning operation G.C. Jayakumar, K.J. Sreeram, G. Sivaraman, P. Saravanan, R.Mohan and J. Raghava Rao. J Clean. Prod. 83, 428-436, 2014.
  23. Studies on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of Salicornia brachiata: influence of saline stress due to soaking wastewater of tannery S Deepa, P R Kannan, S V Kantha, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran Desalination and Water Treatment, 52, 6022-6029, 2014.
2015
  1. Go natural and smarter: fenugreek as a hydration designer of collagen based biomaterials Ivy Kanungo, Nishter Nishad Fathima, Raghava Rao Jonnalagadda and Balachandran Unni Nair Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17, 2778-2798, 2015.
  2. Studies on Tara-phosp honium Combiation Tannage: Approach Towards A Metal Free Eco benign Tanning System R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan and J. Raghava Rao J. Amer. Leather Chem. Ass. 110, 80-87, 2015.
  3. Delimiting water in the chromium-induced stabilization of collagen S Silambarasan, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, P Thanikaivelan J Cleaner Prod., 87, 567-572, 2015.
  4. Microenvironmental changes in collagen/polyvinyl alcohol blends in the preence of ionic liquids: a spectroscopic analysis Ami Mehta, Ivy Kanungo, J Raghava Rao and N Nishad Fathima J Bioact Compact. Polym., 30(2) 167–177, 2015.
  5. Biomass of Termitomyces clypeatus - byproduct of enzyme and fermentation industry for chromium(III) removal from chrome tanning wastewater Aafreen Fathima, Rathinam Aravindhan, Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Clean Techn Environ Policy, 17, 541-547, 2015.
  6. Magnetic collagen fibers stabilized using functional iron oxide nanoparticles in non-aqueous medium C. Alliraja, J.Raghava Rao and P. Thanikaivelan RSC Adv. 27, 20939-20944, 2015.
  7. Kinetics of inhibition of type I collagenase by dialdehyde cellulose in stabilization of type I collagen Jayakumar GC, Usharani N, Yasothai A, Swarna VK, Raghava Rao J. J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 110, 72-29, 2015.
  8. Hybrid Composites: amalgamation of proteins with polymeric phenols as a multifunctional material for leather processing R Sathya, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair RSC Adv. 5, 33221–33232, 2015.
  9. Ionic liquids: new age materials for eco-friendly leather processing Jayakumar GC, Mehta A, Rao JR, Fathima NN RSC Advances, 5, 31998–32005, 2015.
  10. Effect of pre- treatment on dye degradation in aerobic reactor C. Kalyanaraman, K. Sri Bala Kameswari, S.V. Srinivasan, K. Thirumarana, J Raghava Rao Desalination and Water Treatment, 2015.
  11. Removal of Trivalent Chromium using indigenous Bacillus species – A biofilm based approach A Fathima, M Sadiq, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 2015.
  12. Studies on enhancing the biodegradation of tannins by ozonation and Fenton’s oxidation process Chitra Kalyanaraman, Kanchinadham Sri Bala Kameswari , Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao J Ind. Eng. Chem. 2015.
  13. Towards sustainable leather production: vegetable tanning in non-aqueous medium N. R Bhargavi, C. G. Jayakumar, K. J. Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015.
  14. Thermochromism for smart leathers V Tamilmani, D Kanadasan, R Muthazhagan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015.
  15. An assessment of differences between butt and belly regions of Indian sheep skin N Dagnew, V Punitha, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B U Niar J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015.
  16. A molecular level investigation of dialdehyde starch interaction with collagen for eco-friendly stabilization GC Jayakumar, SV Kanth, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015.
  17. Extraction of bovine serum albumin using aqueous two-phase poly (ethylene glycol) – poly(acrylic acid) system Saravanan Settu, Punitha Velmurugan, Raghava Rao Jonnalagadda, Balachandran Unni Nair J. Sci. Ind. Res., 2015.
  18. Engineering D-Amino Acid Containing Collagen like Peptide at the Cleavage Site of Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase for its Inhibition Punitha Velmurugan, Raghava Rao Jonnalagadda, Balachandran Unni Nair PLOS ONE, 2015, Accepted, Manuscript Number: PONE-D-14-53074R1
  19. Does L to D-amino acid substitution trigger helix →sheet conformations in collagen like peptides adsorbed to surfaces? Punitha Velmurugan, Raghava Rao Jonnalagadda, Kamatchi Sankaranarayanan, Aruna Dhathathreyan Materials Science and Engineering C: Materials for biological applications, Under Revision.
  20. Alternative carrier medium for sustainable leather manufacturing – a review and perspective Sathish M, Madhan B, Sreeram KJ, Rao JR, Nair BU. J Cleaner Prod. , 2015; Under Revision.
  21. Innovative material from paper and pulp industry for leather processing Mohammad Jamal Azhar Zakira, Pandian Balasubramaniana, Sathya Ramalingama, Rathinam Aravindhan, Kalarical Janardhanan Sreeram, Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao, and Balachandran Unni Nair. J Cleaner Prod., Under Revision
  22. Value added leather auxiliaries from paper and Pulp industry waste M Vedhanayagama, TK Teddyb, KJ Sreerama, J Raghava Rao J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015
  23. Metal organic based syntan for multi stage leather processing G.C. Jayakumar, S.Sangeetha, K.J.Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao, BU Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, 2015.
  24. Novel chrome-melamine syntan: a step towards developing fuller leather P. Balasubramanian, M. J. Azhar zakir, R. Aravindhan, KJ. Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair J.Amer.Leather Chem. Ass, Under Revision
General Articles
1988
  1. Electrodialysis : A Prospect in Chrome Reuse J.Raghava Rao , BGS Prasad and T.Ramasami, Finesse, Dec. 1988.
1990
  1. Mineral Tanning : Some New Avenues T.Ramasami, B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao , N.K.Chandrababu and M.Kanthimathi, Training in Tanning Techniques and Leather goods Manufacture, 1990.
1992
  1. High Exhaust Chrome Tanning Systems J.Raghava Rao , B.Chandrasekaran and T.Ramasami Proceedings of 27th LERIG, CLRI, Madras , 1992.
1994
  1. Pollution Control in Leather Industry : Emerging Technological Options T.Ramasami, S.Rajamani and J.Raghava Rao Proceedings of IUPAC International Symposium on Colloids and Surface Chemistry held in CLRI, Madras , March 1994.
1995
  1. Overview of Viable Better Chrome Management Technologies for the Indian Leather Sector T.Ramasami, J.Raghava Rao , N.K.Chandrababu, R.Venba, B.C.Unni Nair, B.G.S.prasad, T.S.K.Mahadevan, K.G.K.Warrier, K.Muraleedharan Nair, A.D.Damodaran, J.S.A.Langerwerf, J.Van der Zwan & A.H.de Vries Proceedings of 30th LERIG, CLRI, Madras , 1-9,1995.
  2. Low Waste Closed Loop Chrome Tanning Method N.K.Chandrababu, J.Raghava Rao , P.Sambasiva Rao, R.Ramesh, M.Suresh Babu, T.Ramasami, J.S.A.Langerwerf, A.D.Covington & W.Walker. Proceedings of 30th LERIG, CLRI, Madras , 23-36, 1995.
  3. Chromium Reuse J.Raghava Rao , R.Venba, B.C.Unni Nair, R.Suthanthararajan, S.Rajamani and T.Ramasami. Proceedings of 30th LERIG, CLRI, Madras , 37-56, 1995.
1996
  1. Recycle and Reuse of Waste Water in Chemical Industries - A Case Study on Tanneries NK.Chandrababu, C.Muralidharan, K.Parthasarathy, J.Raghava Rao, KV.Raghavan, T.Ramasami and PG.Rao. Paper presented at the Workshop on Water Recovery and Recycle in Chemical Industry, Mumbai, Oct 1996.
  2. Chrome Tanning : Emerging Technologies J.Raghava Rao and C.Muralidharan Traning Workshop on Tannery Management for Tanners/Entrepreneurs from Nepal , CLRI, Chennai, Dec. 1996.
1997
  1. Non-Conventional/Renewable Energy Resources J.Raghava Rao Presented at the 1 st National session of LEAD-India Program, June 1997
  2. Waste Management in Leather Processing: A case of chromium J. Raghava Rao Key Note Presentation at International Conference on Industrial Pollution and Control Technologies(ICIPACT-97), JNU, Hyderabad , Nov. 1997.
1998
  1. Industrial Waste Water Treatment: A case Study on Leather Industry J.Raghava Rao Presented at the 2nd national session of LEAD-India Program, Jan 1998.
  2. Inplant Control Methodologies for the Better management of Chromium J Raghava Rao Workshop on Tannery Management for Tanners from Thailand , CLRI, Chennai, Oct. 1998.
  3. Effective Management of Sulphur and Chrome Compounds: A Corner Stone of Integral Clean Chrome Leather Technology(ICCLT) JSA.Langerwerf, Jw.Van.Groenstijn, A.De.Vries, T.Ramasami, S.Rajamani, N.K.Chandrababu, J.Raghava Rao , A.D.Covington, A.Long, K.M.Nair and KGK.Warrier. The Leather Manuf., 116 , 12-23, 1998.
1999
  1. High Exhaust Chrome Tanning and Alternative Tanning Processes, Utilisation of the Chrome Sludge J Raghava Rao Training Programme on Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Management in Tanning Industries for the Staff of CPCB and SPCBs, CLRI, Chennai, Jan.1999.
  2. Nucleation and Particulation of Chromic Hydroxide: Factors and Applications K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao , R.Sundaram, B.U.Nair and T.Ramasami “Science and Technology for Leather Into the Next Millennium”, Proceedings of the XXV IULTCS Congress, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, 35-40, 1999.
  3. Surveillance of Chromium in Tanning: A Revisit J.Raghava Rao , S.Rajamani, N.K.Chandrababu, P.S.Rao, R.Ramesh, R.Suthanthararajan, B.U.Nair, K.M.Nair, K.G.K.Warrier, T.Ramasami and JSA.Langerwerf “Science and Technology for Leather Into the Next Millennium”, Proceedings of the XXV IULTCS Congress, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi, 295-301, 1999.
  4. Chrome Recovery and Closed Pickle-Chrome Tan Recycling Methods J.Raghava Rao and M.Subba Rao Regional Training Workshop on Cleaner Production in Leather Sector, CSC-CLRI, CLRI, Chennai, June 1999.
  5. Leather Chemicals: Emerging Trends T.Ramasami, J.Raghava Rao , B.Chandrasekaran and N.K.Chandrababu Leather Age, Aug., 23-30, 1999.
2000
  1. Leather Chemicals:Present Scenario and Future Trends J.Raghava Rao and P.G.Rao Voice, 79-82, Jan. 2000.
  2. Principles of Tanning Operation J Raghava Rao and C Muralidharan Orientation Training Programme for Scientific Officials from Leather Research Centre, Dhaka , Bangladesh at CLRI, May 2000.
2001
  1. Proactive Policy Needs J. Raghava Rao , G. Swaminathan Background paper at 35 th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2001.
2003
  1. Emerging Trends in Leather Chemical Sector: A Perspective Analysis T Ramasami and J Raghava Rao Chemical Industry Digest, 87-98, Jan 2003.
  2. Third Millennium Leather Processing: A Three Step Tanning Through Biocatalytic Pathway P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao , Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Proceedings of the XXVII IULTCS Congress, Cancun , Mexico , May 2003.
  3. An Ecobenign Option for Pickle free Tanning Workshop on Efficient , Rationalised and Value Added Chrome Tanning System for Indian Tanning Industry , CLRI, July 2003.
  4. Cleaner Leather Processing and Environmental management J Raghava Rao Workshop on Modernisation and Environmental Aspects of Leather manufacture for Tanners of Kyrgyz Republic, CLRI, Nov 2003.
  5. New Millennium Leather Processing Towards Zero Discharge P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Leather Age, 25(10), 16-48, 2003.
  6. New Millennium Leather Processing: Biomediated Three Step Tanning P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao , B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Indian Leather, 37(8) , 13-24, 2003.
2004
  1. Gaining Environmental Security in Industrial Sector: A Case Study of Indian Leather Industry J Raghava Rao and T Ramasami Procedings of the Celebrations at Jain Engineering College , Chennai, July 2004.
2005
  1. Reversed Leather Processing for Cleaner Production S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Proceedings of the XXVIII IULTCS Congress, Florence , Italy , March 2005.
  2. Biobased Leather Processing for Cleaner Environemnet J Raghava Rao, P Thaniakaivelan, S Saravanabhavan, S Ramalingam, B U Nair and T Ramasami Training Program on Cleaner technologies in Leather manufacture, RANITEC CETP, Ranipet, June 2005.
  3. Chrome Management Techniques in Leather Processing J Raghava Rao, KJ Sreeram, P Thanikaivelan, NK Chandrababu, S Ramalingam , B U Nair and T Ramasami Training Program on Cleaner technologies in Leather manufacture, RANITEC CETP, Ranipet, June 2005.
  4. An Eco-friendly way for Sustainable Leather Production S Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao, S Ramalingam, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Article presented in ILTA Souvenir, Aug 2005.
2006
  1. Enzymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Openin V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivela, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T. Ramasami EURO Congress, Istanbul, May 2006.
2008
  1. Gaining New Insights in Cleaner and Greener Leather Processing AB Mandal, J Raghava Rao, NK Chandrababu, P Saravanan and PK Sehgal Leather Age, 59-62, Jan, 2008.
  2. Leather Chemicals: Present Scenario and Future Trends KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair and A Subbarama Naidu Chemical Business, 22, 56-59, April 2008.
  3. Leather Bioprocessing: A Greener Finish A Amudeswari, J Raghava Rao, P Saravanan, T Ramasami Bitech News, Vol IV, No. 1, Feb 2009.
Articles in Books
2014
  1. Effective management of chromium in leather industry through less-chrome and chrome-free tanning technologies N. Nishad Fathima, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao, B.U. Nair Accepted for publication, Trivedi, Aavishkar Publishers, India, 2014.
  2. Effective Utilization of Solid Waste from Leather Industry, N. Nishad Fathima, B. Madhan, J. Raghava Rao, B.U. Nair The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection Edited by Monzer Fanun, Elsevier, 23, 594-613. 2014.
2013
  1. Chromium and Leather, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins, Springer, LVII 2013.
2008
  1. Dye containing wastewaters: Sources, Concerns and Mitigation N Nishad Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Pollution and Bioremediations, Chapter 4, Ed PC Trivedi, Aavishkar Publishers, India, 2008.
2007
  1. Enzyme Applications in Leather processing: Current Scenario and Future Outlook P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U Nair and T. Ramasami Enzyme Mixtures and Complex Biosynthesis, Ed. Sanjoy K. Bhattacharya, ISBN: TBA, Lan des Bioscience, Chapter V, 38- 48, 2007.
2006
  1. Management of Chromium In Industrial Wastewaters N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao And Balachandran Unni Nair Industrial pollution and its Management, Aavishkar Publishers, Ed. By Pravin Chandra Trivedi, Jaipur, 1-35, 2006.
2004
  1. Biotechnological Options for Environmental Management in Leather Processing: A Review on Recent Developments P.Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair and T. Ramasami Biotechnology in Environmental Management, Edited by G.R. Pathade and P.K. Goel. Jaipur, ABD, xii, 1-38, ISBN 81-89011-11-1, 2004.
1999
  1. Some Strategies Towards Mitigation of Pollution from Tanneries: A Review J.Raghava Rao, K. J.Sreeram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Advances in Industrial Waste Water Treatment, Technoscience Publications, Jaipur, 135-152, 1999.
  2. Emerging Trends in Chemical Needs of the Leather Sector: A Perspective Analysis T.Ramasami, J.Raghava Rao, B.Chandrasekaran, N.K.Chandrababu Monograph of Leather, Edited by Vijayaraghavan, Published by Kothari Publishers, 1994.
Monographs
2000
  1. Eco-Friendly Technologies for Leather Chemicals – India as a Source B.Chandrasekaran, N. K. C. J. Raghava Rao, V.S. Sundara Rao, T. Ramasami Indian Chemical Industry: Opportunities Unlimited, 177-189, 2000.
  2. Environmental Management: Plan and Process J. Raghava Rao and J.Hannak International Consultation Meeting on Technology and Environmental Ugradation in Leather Sector organized under the GoI-UNDP Umbrella Programme, New Delhi, 29-30 Nov 1999.
  3. Better Chrome Management : A Manual J.Raghava Rao, K.J.Sreeram, R.Gayatri, B.Chandrasekaran, N.K.C. Babu, S. Krishnan, T. Ramasami Published under TNO-CLRI (CSIR) Cooperation Programme, 1997.
  4. Workers Manual In Chrome Management J.Raghava Rao, K.J.Sreeram, R.Gayatri, B.Chandrasekaran, N.K.Chandrababu, S.Krishnan and T.Ramasami, Published under Leather Technology Mission in English, Hindi and Tamil, CSIR/CLRI, 1996.
  5. Approaches Towards Low Waste Chrome Tanning T.Ramasami, N.K.Chandrababu, B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao, M.Kanthimathi and V.Narasimhan, Trends in Mineral Tanning and Resource Potential (T.Ramasami, G.Thyagarajan ed.) p:167-199, 1987.
Papers in Conferences
1987
  1. A low Affinity Tetrameric Species in Spent Chrome Liquor: Structural Investigation J.Raghava Rao, B.C.Unni Nair, T.Ramasami and D.Ramaswamy Poster paper presented at TGT, CLRI, Madras, Feb.1987.
  2. Recovery of Chrome from Spent Liquors: New Possibilities through Electrodialysis J.Raghava Rao, B.G.S.Prasad, V.Narasimhan, T.Ramasami and D.Ramaswamy Poster paper presented at TGT, CLRI, Madras, Feb. 1987.
  3. Characterization of a Tetrameric Tetrapositive Chromium Species with Unusual Reactivity J.Raghava Rao, B.Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Paper presented at XXV International Conference on Coordination Chemistry, China, July 1987.
  4. Electrodialysis as a Means for Recovery of Chromium from Spent Chrome Tanning Liquors J.Raghava Rao, B.G.S.Prasad, T.Ramasami and D.Ramaswamy Paper presented at Electrochemistry Students Meet, COSTED, Madras, Oct.1987.
1988
  1. Permselective Membrane Separations of Chromium(III) Complexes in Industrial Effluents J.Raghava Rao, B.G.S.Prasad, T.Ramasami and D.Ramaswamy Paper presented at 1st EURASIA Conference on Chemistry of Solutions, Bangkok, Jan. 1988.
  2. Electrodialysis as a Means to Recover and Reuse Chromium in Spent Chrome Liquors B.G.S.Prasad, J.Raghava Rao, T.Ramasami, K.V.Raghavan, Premraj Shah and A.A.Khan, Poster paper presented at 23rd TGT, CLRI, Madras, Feb.1988.
  3. Kinetics of the Anation of a Chromium(III) Aqua Tetramer J.Raghava Rao, B.Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Paper presented at Annual Symposium in Chemistry, IIT, Madras, March 1988.
1989
  1. Polynuclear Chromium(III) Complexes and their Chemical Reactivity J.Raghava Rao, B.Chandrasekaran, B.C.Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Paper presented at National Seminar on Application of Physical methods in Chemistry at Annamalai University, Chidambaram, March 1989.
  2. Electrodialysis as a Means of Selective Separation of Chromium Salts from Industrial Effluents B.G.S.Prasad, J.Raghava Rao, B.C.Unni Nair, T.Ramasami, P.R.Shah and A.A.Khan Paper presented at National Seminar on Application of Physical methods in Chemistry at Annamalai University, Chidambaram, March 1989.
1990
  1. High Exhaust Chrome Tanning System B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao and T.Ramasami Posted paper presented at TGT, CLRI, Madras, Jan. 1990.
  2. Reactivity of Polynuclear Complexes of Chromium(III) and their Industrial Relevance J.Raghava Rao, B.C.Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Paper presented at II EURASIA Conference on Chemistry, Seoul, April 1990.
1991
  1. New Chromium(III) salts as Low Waste Tanning Products, B.Chandrasekaran, J.Raghava Rao and T.Ramasami Paper presented at 16th Annual, Symposium in Chemistry, IIT, Madras, Feb. 1991.
1992
  1. Studies on the optimization of Chrome Recovery/Reuse Methods in Tanneries R.Venba, J.Raghavan Rao, J.K.Khanna and T.Ramasami Poster paper presented at LERIG, CLRI, Madras, Jan. 1992.
1993
  1. Studies on the Approaches to Better Management of Cr(III) Salts as Tanning Agents - CSMCRI during CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, Sep. 1993.
1995
  1. New Methods of Chrome Recovery and Reuse with Lower Sulfate Discharge J Raghava Rao, B G S Prasad, R Venba, S.Rajamani, T.Ramasami, A.D.Covington, A.I.Long nd J S A Langerwerf Poster paper presented in XXIII IULTCS Congress, Friedrichshafen, May 1995.
  2. Electrodialysis for Management of Sulfate and Chromium in Leather Processing> SK Thampy, PK Narayanan, DK Chauhan, JJ Trivedi, VK Indusekhar, J Raghava Rao, BGS Prasad, S Rajamani, T Ramasami, R. Creusen and J.S.A.Langerwerf Poster paper presented in XXIII IULTCS Congress, Friedrichshafen, May 1995.
  3. High Exhaustion or Near-Zero Waste Chrome Tanning Methodologies N.K.Chandra Babu, R.Ramesh, N.Sambasiva Rao, J.Raghava Rao, T.Ramasami, A.D.Covington, J.S.A. Langerwerf and (Late) W.P. Walker. Poster paper presented in XXIII IULTCS Congress, Friedrichshafen, May 1995.
1996
  1. Approaches to Continuous Methods of Chrome Recovery K.J.Sreeram, J.Raghava Rao, R.Sundaram, S.Rajamani, T.Ramasami and K.V.Raghavan Poster paper presented in 31st LERIG, CLRI, Madras, Jan. 1996.
1997
  1. Zirconium Tanning : A Viable Ecofriendly Alternative to Chromium K.J.Sreeram, M.Kanthimathi, J.Raghava Rao, R.Sundaram, Balachandran Unni Nair and T.Ramasami Poster paper presented in 32nd LERIG, CLRI, Madras, Jan 1997.
1998
  1. A Comparative Study on Chromium Release from Conventional and Alutan-BCS Tanned Bovine Wet Blue, P.K.Sahu, Jasmeet Singh, Syed Javed Ali, R.Bharath, NK.Chandrababu, J.Raghava Rao and T.Ramasami. Poster paper presented in 33rd LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Feb. 1998
2000
  1. A Novel Chromium-Iron Tanning Agent P.Thanikaivelan, V.Geetha, J.Raghava Rao, K.J.Sreeram and B.Unni Nair Poster paper presented in 34th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2000.
2001
  1. Do-ecology Solutions for Leather Sector: Technology Initiatives J.Raghava Rao, T. Ramasami, A. Sahasranaman, M.M. Hasim, M. Rafeeque Ahmed Paper presented in Regional IULTCS Conference of South and South East Asian Countries on Leather and Allied Technologies, Kolkata, March 2001.
  2. Approach towards zero discharge tanning: Role of concentration on the development of eco-friendly liming-reliming processes P.Thanikaivelan, J.Raghava Rao, B.Unni Nair and T. Ramasami Poster paper presented at 26th IULTCS Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, March 2001.
  3. An Eco-Friendly Option for Pickle-Less Chrome Tanning P.Thanikaivelan, M. Kanthimathi , J.Raghava Rao, B.Unni Nair Technology day on Innovations in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April 2001.
2002
  1. A Novel Chrome Tanning Agent for Pickle-Less Tanning P.Thanikaivelan, M. Kanthimathi, J.Raghava Rao and B.Unni Nair Paper presented in 36th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2002.
  2. Conventional ab initio and Density Functional Calculations on Dipeptide-Gallic acid Interaction B. Madan, V. Subramanian, J. Raghava Rao, B.U Nair and T. Ramasami Poster paper presented at fourth National Symposium in Chemistry (Under the auspices of Chemical Research Society of India) Pune, Feb 2002.
2003
  1. Chromium-Zirconium Mixed Metal Complexes as Alternative Tanning Systems K J Sreeram, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Poster paper presented in 37th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2003.
  2. Greener Solution without Green: “ALTASI” A Viable Tanning System N Nishad Fathima, S Saravanabhavan, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Poster paper presented in 37th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2003.
  3. Effect of zirconium(IV) complexes on the thermal and enzymatic stability of type I collagen N Nishad Fathima, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Fifth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, Chennai, Feb 2003.
  4. An Eco-benign Option for Pickle-free Chrome Tanning Contributions from Chemical laboratory and Leather Processing Division 37th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2003.
  5. The Interaction of Zirconium Complexes with Collagen: Effect on Thermal and Enzymatic Stability N Nishad Fathima, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2003.
  6. Tannery Effluents: A Recovery and Reuse Approach R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at CSIR Diamond Jubilee Concluding Year, CLRI, Sep 2003.
  7. Interaction of Aldehydes with Collagen: Effect on Thermal, Enzymatic and Conformational Stability B. Madhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Paper presented at CSIR Diamond Jubilee Concluding Year, CLRI, Sep 2003.
  8. Manufacture of Ecolabelled Leathers: A Proof of Concept S Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at CSIR Diamond Jubilee Concluding Year, CLRI, Sep 2003.
  9. Cleaner Technologies for Leather Processing: A Real Life Study J Raghava Rao and T Ramasami Paper Presented at the National Seminar on Cleaner & Sustainable Technology, Pondicherry, Oct 2003.
2004
  1. Theory and Pragmatism of Eco-label Standards in Leather Manufacture S Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented in 38th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2004.
  2. Solid Wastes Remove Toxic Liquid Wastes: Adsorption of Chromium(VI) from the Industrial Effluents by Protein Wastes from Tannery N Nishad Fathima, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at 91st Indian Science Congress, Punjab University, Chandigarh, Jan 2004.
  3. Interaction of Aldehydes with Collagen: Effect on Thermal, Enzymatic and Conformational Stability B. Madhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Paper presented at 91st Indian Science Congress, Punjab University, Chandigarh, Jan 2004.
  4. Adsorption, Desorption and Kinetic Studies on the Removal of Dyes from Tannery Effluent using Calcium Alginate Beads R. Aravindhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Poster paper presented in Sixth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, Kanpur, Feb 2004.
  5. Three Pot Solutions for Chromium, Tannins and Solid Wastes: Recovery and reuse technique for Spent Semi-chrome Liquor and Chrome Shavings S Saravanabhavan, K. J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2004.
  6. Iron-Phosphonium Combination Tanning: A New Dimensional Win-Win Tanning System M. Chandra Bose, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair. Paper presented at Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2004.
  7. Interaction of Collagen With Iron-Tetrakis Hydroxymethylsulfate Complex: Approach Towards Understanding Collagen Stabilization by Iron Complexes N Nishad Fathima, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair, T Ramasami. Third Symposium on Advances in Bioinorganic Chemistry (SABIC-2004) Goa, Dec. 2004.
2005
  1. Develoement of an Environmentally Benign Multifunctional Syntan for Post tanning Applications R. Nataraj, S Saravanabhavan, K.J.Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair and T Ramasami Paper presented in 39th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan. 2005.
  2. Zeolite Encapsulated Manganese Schiff Base Complex Catalyzed Oxidation of Dyes in the Presence of H2O2 N. Nishad Fathima, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair Poster paper presented in Seventh National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, Kolkata, Feb 2005.
  3. Paradigm Shift from Conventional to Modified Leather Process for Cleaner Production S Saravanabhavan, P Thanikaivelan, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2005.
  4. Innovations In Retanning: Going Green Through “Protac-M” R Natraj, S Saravanabhavan, R Aravindhan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, BU Nair and T Ramasami Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2005.
  5. Extraction of Value Added Proteineous Components from Tannery Wastewaters through Aqueous Two-Phase Partitioning S Saravanan, J Raghava Rao, T Murugesan and BU Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2005.
  6. Mn-Exchanged Y Zeolite as Catalyst for Wet Peroxide Oxidation of Acid Brown Dye R Aravindhan, N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2005.
  7. An Approach Towards Single Step Hair-Removal and Fibre Opening Process Using Enzymes P.Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and B.U. Nair Poster presented at 101 ALCA Convention, Skytop, PA, USA, June, 2005
  8. Use of Proteinous Wastes from Leather Industry as Adsorbents for the Removal of Dyes from Wastewaters S Saravanabhavan, K J Sreeram, R Indumathy, S Radhika, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair and T Ramasami Poster presented at National Conference-FESEI-05, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Sep 2005
  9. Studies on Iron-Phosphonium Based Tanning System M. Chandrabose, R. Aravindhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B U Nair Poster presented at CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, CLRI, Sep 2005
  10. Biodegradability of Leathers Through Anaerobic Pathway K. Dhayalan, N. Nishad Fathima, A. Gnanamania, J. Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair, T. Ramasami Poster Presented at CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, CLRI, Sep 2005
  11. An Integrated Dehairing and Fibre Opening Process Using Enzymes K. Bharath, P. Thanikaivelan, S. Saravanabhavan, J. Raghava Rao, B. Chandrasekaran and B U Nair Poster presented at CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, CLRI, Sep 2005
  12. Chrome Free Garment Leathers Based On Tara -Gluteraldehyde Combination Tannage R. Aravindhan, B. Madhan, N. Ranjitha Kumar, V. Venkaih, J. Raghava Rao And B. Unni Nair Poster presented at CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, CLRI, Sep 2005
  13. Use of Proteinous Wastes from Leather Industry as Adsorbents for the Removal of Dyes from Wastewaters S Saravanabhavan, K J Sreeram, R Indumathy, S Radhika, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair and T Ramasami Poster presented at CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, CLRI, Sep 2005
  14. An ecofriendly Tanning System for Leather Manufacture M Niranjana, TN Archana, Swarna V Kanth, B Madhan, J Raghava rao, S Sadulla, B U Nair and T Rmasami Paper presented at ChemCon- Students Charter, Organised by IIT-G, Dec 2005.
2006
  1. Zeolite encapsulated Copper Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of dyes in the presence of H2O2 R. Aravindhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair Paper presented at 93rd Indian Science Congress, Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Jan 2006
  2. Enzymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Opening V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami<>br> Paper presented at 40th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2006.
  3. Zeolite encapsulated Copper Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of dyes in the presence of H2O2 R. Aravindhan, N. Nishad Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair Paper presented at 40th LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2006.
  4. Enymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Opening V. Punitha, P. Kannan, S. Saravanabhavan, P. Thanikaivelan, J. Raghava Rao, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Paper presented at EUROCongress, Istanbul, May 2006.
  5. Exploring Opportunities for Chromium Replacement: Through Rareearths K. Dhayalan, K.J.Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and B. U. Nair Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2006.
  6. Recovery of Value Added Globular proteins from tannery Wastewaters using PEG-Salt Aqueous Two-phase Systems S. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao, T. Murugesan, B. U. Nair and T. Ramasami Paper presented at seminar on Innovation in Leather Science and Technology, CLRI, Chennai, April, 2006.
  7. Approach to Understanding the Mechanism of Aluminium Vegetable Combination Tannage: An Interaction of Aluminium and Hydrolysable Tannin Polyphenols B Madhan, R Aravindhan, M S Siva, S Sadulla, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair Paper presented at seminar during CSIR Foundation Day, CLRI, Chennai, Sep 2006.
  8. Green Chemistry: A better living through chemistry, M Pradeep Kumar, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at seminar during CSIR Foundation Day, CLRI, Chennai, Sep 2006.
  9. Trends in Retanning: A Way Forward M. Shankar, R Aravindhan, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at seminar during CSIR Foundation Day, CLRI, Chennai, Sep 2006.
  10. A Radical approach towards Stabilization of Collagen V.Punitha, Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at seminar during CSIR Foundation Day, CLRI, Chennai, Sep 2006.
  11. Participated in the Third National Workshop on Inventors of India, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Oct 2006.
2007
  1. Atom Economy: A Measure of Best Practice in Industrial Chemistry M Pradeep Kumar, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at 41st LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2007.
  2. Interaction of Aluminium and Hydrolysable Tannin Polyphenols: Approach to Understanding the Mechanism of Aluminium Vegetable Combination Tannage B Madhan, R Aravindhan, M S Siva, S Sadulla, J. Raghava Rao, B. Unni Nair Paper presented at 41st LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2007.
  3. Effect of UV irradiation on the physico-chemical properties of collagen: Role of chromium(III) N. Nishad Fathima, R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and B. Unni Nair Poster paper presented in Ninth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, New Delhi, Feb 2007.
  4. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of basic yellow dye using green alga Caulerpa scalpelliformis R. Aravindhan, J. Raghava Rao and Balachandran Unni Nair Poster paper presented in Ninth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, New Delhi, Feb 2007.
  5. Natural Dyeing of Leathers Using Natural materials J. Raghava Rao, A. Prakash, E. Thangaraj, K. S. Saravanabhavan, KJ Sreeram, P Saravanaan and B. U. Nair Paper presented in XXVIII IULTCS Congress, Washington DC, June 2007.
2008
  1. Removal of dyes using Solid Waste from Tanneries N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2008.
  2. Eco-benign solutions for Reduction of TDS in Tanning Sector Swarna V Kanth, P Ramesh Kannan, A Tamilselvi, P Saravanan, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran Paper presented at 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2008.
  3. Phytoremediation of Chromium from Tannery Wastewater Polluted Land D Archana, S Priya, Ramesh Kannan, Swarna V Kanth, J Raghav Rao and B Chandrasekaran Paper presented at 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2008.
  4. Zero Formaldehyde Syntan Swarna V Kanth, SC Ram Kumar, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran and B U Nair Paper presented at 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Chennai, Jan 2008.
  5. Removal of dyes using Solid Waste from Tanneries: Twin Benefit Technology N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Poster paper presented in Tenth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, Bangalore, Feb 2008.
  6. Studies on the removal of Trivalent Arsenic from aqueous solutions using the alga Hypnea valentiae R. Aravindhan, D. Prathiba, J Raghava Rao Presented a paper in HAPTEN 2K8, National Level Technical Symposium, Arunai engineering college, Tiruvanamalai 28-29 March, 2008
  7. Gluteraldehyde crosslinked protein waste for removal of colors from wastewaters N Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair 3rd International Symposium on Environment, Athens, Greece, 22-25, May 2008.
  8. Aerobic biodegradation of azo dye basic blue 69 by Bacillus subtilis R. Aravindhan, N.S. Raja, J. Raghava Rao, B.U Nair Presented paper in International Conference on Environment -2008
  9. organized by School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, 15-17, December 2008.
2009
  1. Polymer Based Preservation: A New Horizon in Leather Manufacture J. Raghava Rao, K C Kannan, M Pradeep Kumar and B. U. Nair Paper presented in XXX IULTCS Congress, Beijing, Oct 2009.
2010
  1. Green Leather Processing: New Avenues J Raghava Rao Paper presented at 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, 12-14 Nov 2010.
  2. Reaching New Targets through Chemicals: Challenges and Opportunities for Leather Chemical Sector KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran and B U Nair Paper presented at 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, Nov 2010.
  3. Smart Leather for Smart Functional Applications: New Age Material N Nishad Fathima, Kj Sreeram, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, Nov 2010.
  4. Studies on the Influence of Scleraldehyde on Stabilization of Collagen, G C Jayakumar, Swarna V Kanth, B Chandrasekaran, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, Nov 2010.
  5. Collagen Based Smart Drug Delivery Systems Ivy Kanungo, N Nishad Fathima, J R Rao and B U Nair Poster Presentation at VIII Asia International conference on Leather Science and Technology, held at Kolkata, India, Nov 12-14, 2010.
  6. An Approach to Stabilize Collagen through L→D Configurational Changes V Punitha, S Sundar Raman, R Parthasarathi, V Subramainian, J Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at 8th Asia International Conference on Leather Science & Technology, Kolkata, Nov 2010.
2011
  1. Green Mark - stamp for environment-friendly leather manufacturing B. Madhan, P. Saravanan, J. Raghava Rao and G. Sekaran Concept paper at the 45th LERIG, Chennai, 29-30Jan 2011.
  2. Development of Collagen Based Smart Drug Delivery Systems Ivy Kanungo, N Nishad Fathima, J R Rao and B U Nair Poster presented at 13th National Symposium in Chemistry under the aegis of Chemical Research Society of India, held at Bhubaneswar, India, 4-6 Feb, 2011.
  3. Role of Iso-peptide Bonds on the Thermodynamic and Proteolytic Stability of Collagen, V Punitha,J Raghava Rao, V Subramanian, B Unni Nair Gorden Research Conference on Collagen, New London, USA, 17-22 July 2011.
  4. A Novel approach to stabilize Collagen analog through Là D Configurational Changes V Punitha, J. Raghava Rao, V Subramanian and B. U. Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  5. Combination Tanning based on Tara and THPS B Madhan, R Aravindhan, T Senthil Raja and J. Raghava Rao Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  6. Greener Leather processing: Developemne of Bio-energy from Biodegradable and Recyclable Leather S V Kanth, J. Raghava Rao, B Chandrasekaran and B U Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  7. Tannery Solid Waste Management: Wealth f5rom Waste N N Fathima, S N Jaishankar, J. Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  8. Studies on Tolerance and Accumulation of Salt by Salicornia brachiate and its Potential for Phytoremediation S Deepa, P Ramesh Kannan, A Yasothai, S V Kanth, J. Raghava Rao and B Chandrasekaran Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  9. Development of Natural Oil Micro-emulsions for Scent Infused Leathers J. Raghava Rao, V Punitha, G Bhaskar and B U Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  10. Smart Materials for Stimuli Responsive Leather N N Fathima, S sangeetha, K J sreeram, J. Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
  11. Development of Collagen based Smart Drug Delivery Syatems I Kanango, N N Fathima, J. Raghava Rao and B U Nair Paper presented in XXXI IULTCS Congress, Spain, Sep 2011
2012
  1. High End Leather Processing J Raghava Rao Paper presented at the 46th LERIG, Chennai, Jan 2012.
  2. Hydration behavior of collagen-guar gum scaffolds: An impedance and thermoporometric studies I Kanungo, M Reshme, N Nishad Fathima, J R Rao and B U Nair Paper presented at the CRSI, Trivandrum, Feb 2012.
  3. Preparation of Eco-Benign Retanning Agent from Raw Trimmings; A Step towards Zero Discharge M Sathish, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair Paper presented in CLRI foundation day celebrations, April 2012.
  4. Greener Product for Greener Environment M Sathish, B Madhan, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair Paper presented at National Conference on Green Chemistry held at Presidency College, Chennai, June 2012.
2013
  1. Preparation and characterization of modified pectin: A new insights into biodegradable polymer for collagen stabilization Gladstone Christopher Jayakumar, Jonnalagadda Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented in XXXII IULTCS Congress, Turkey, May 2013
  2. Impedance Analysis: A tool for understanding changes in hydration dynamics of collagen on crosslinking Nishter Nishad Fathima, Ivy Kanungo, J R Rao, B U Nair Paper presented in XXXII IULTCS Congress, Turkey, May 2013.
  3. Wanke Sheep Skins: A Promising Opportunity for Value Addition to Ethiopian Leather Sector G. Aysanew, H. Mohammed, R. Aravindhan, A Gnanamani, M.D. Naresh, A. Rajaram, J. Raghava Rao, N.K. Chandrababu Paper presented in XXXII IULTCS Congress, Turkey, May 2013.
  4. Thermochromic sensors for Leather KJ Sreeram, V Tamilmani, S Sangeetha, S R Radhika, R Aravindhan, J Raghava Rao, B U Nair Paper presented in XXXII IULTCS Congress, Turkey, May 2013.
  5. Collagen stabilisation for biomedical application: Role of ionic liquids Ami Mehta, GC Jayakumar, J Raghava Rao, N Nishad Fathima First International Conference on Biotechnology, Bioinformatics and Bioengineering under the aegis of Society for Applied Biotechnology, held at Tirupati, India, during 28-29 June 2013.
  6. Effect of organic solvents on the structure and thermal stability of Type I collagen: A systematic study using circular dichroism Ganesh Shanmugam,Samala Murali Mohan Reddy, Balaraman Madhan, J Raghava Rao, Aruna Dhathathreyan Presented at 14th International Conference on Chiroptical Spectroscopy, Vanderbilt University, USA, 9-13 June, 2013.
  7. Leather Processing without water: Possibilities J Raghava Rao Invited Lecture at National Seminar on Chemistry Education and Research & National Convention of Chemistry Teachers (NCCT-13), Nov 8- 10, 2013,Annamalia University, Chidambaram
2014
  1. Effect of Ionic liquids on type I collagen at different hierarchical ordering Ami Mehta, J Raghava Rao, Nishter Nishad Fathima World Biotechnology Congress, 10-12 Feb, 2014, Dubai.
  2. Collagen in Ethanol: What Happens to the Triple Helical Structure? G Arun, M S Murali Mohan Reddy, S Ganesh, B Madhan and J Raghava Rao Second International conference on Medical materials, Devices and Regenerative Medicine`2014 (MMDRM 2014) 10-13 Jan 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  3. Developement of collagen based smart drug delivery systems Ivy Kanungo, N. Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair Paper presented at the 48th LERIG 2014, CSIR-CLRI, Jan 2014
  4. Smart Materials for Stimuli Responsive Leather Jaya Prakash, N Nishad Fathima, S Sangeetha, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair Paper presented at the 48th LERIG 2014, CSIR-CLRI, Jan 2014
  5. Effect of ionic liquid upon the microenvironment of collagen/PVA blends: Spectroscopic studies Ami Mehta, Ivy Kanungo, J Raghava Rao, N. Nishad Fathima International Conference on Functional Materials, under the aegis of Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, February 5-7, 2014, Kharagpur, India
  6. Elucidation of Hydration Dynamics of Collagen Based Composites by Impedance Ivy Kanungo, N. Nishad Fathima, J Raghava Rao, Balachandran Unni Nair International Conference on Functional Materials, under the aegis of Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, February 5-7, 2014, Kharagpur, India.
  7. Green technology innovation for redefinition of conventional leather processing M.Sathish, K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao, and B.Unni Nair Paper presented at International Conference on Green Technology for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control (ICGTEPC 2014), Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, 27-29 September 2014, Tiruchirapalli, India.
  8. Eco-friendly Technology for Enhancing Water Economy in leather Processing J Raghava Rao, GC Jayakumara, KJ Sreerama, R Aravindhanb, P Thanikaivelanc, B U Niar Paper presented at the 10th Asian International Conference on Leather Science and Technology (AICLST 2014), November 23-26, Okayama, Japan.
  9. Utilization of green solvents for post tanning operations BN Reddy Gari, F Solomon, KJ Sreeram, J Raghava Rao, B Unni Nair Paper presented at the 10th Asian International Conference on Leather Science and Technology (AICLST 2014), November 23-26, Okayama, Japan.
  10. Ionic liquids as new age material for collagen stabilization: Bane or Boon? N Nishad Fathima, Ami Mehta and J Raghava Rao Paper presented at the 10th Asian International Conference on Leather Science and Technology (AICLST 2014), November 23-26, Okayama, Japan.
2015
  1. A Novel Quasi Perfect Architecture for Rapid Hydrogenation R Sathya, L Bhawani Devi, J Raghava Rao and BU Nair Paper presented at 17th CRSI National Symposium in Chemistry, NCL, Feb 6-8, 2015, Pune.
  2. Studies on non-aqueous chrome tanning system for high performance process M.Sathish, K.J. Sreeram, J. Raghava Rao, and B.Unni Nair. Paper presented at 17th CRSI National Symposium in Chemistry, NCL, Feb 6-8, 2015.
Honors and Awards

B.M.Das Memorial Gold Medal for securing 1st Rank in M.Tech.

Sulabh International II Prize for the best paper presentation during the Annual Conference of Indian Association for Environment Management at IIT, Kanpur , Nov.1989.

Hari Om Ashram Prerit Shri.S.S.Bhatnagar Research Award for the Prevention of Water Pollution - 1991, CSMCRI, Bhavnagar , Sep. 1993.

AISHTMA Platinum Jubilee National Award 1995 for Ecological Sustainability of Indian Leather Industry, 31 st LERIG 1996, Chennai , India .

Is a LEAD Associate from India , 1996.click here

Environmental Award 2003 for the Best Research Paper in Environmental Science & Technology from Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu.

Burhani Foundation - NEERI- Award 2001 (Innovation in Environmentally Sound Technology) Click here for Photographdescription

Awarded the Innovation Potential of Students Project Award-2004- Doctoral Level for the Best Thesis -Approaches Towards Zero Discharge Tanning Methods- by Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), Dec 2004.

Biotech Product and Process Development and Commercialization Award-2005, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India , 2005. Click here for Photograph

J Sinha Roy Memorial Award for the best article published from ILTA 2005. Click here for Photographdescription

NRDC award for the invention on -A high performance polymeric syntan for ecobenign chrome tanning- - 2007. Click here for Photographdescription

WIPO award for the best patent invention 2008. Click here for Photographdescription

Certificate of merit for his accomplishments in publications and awards during the year 2008, May 2009. Click here for Photographdescription

Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar Award 2007 for Environmental Protection, MoEF, 2009. Click here for Photographdescription

Tamil Nadu Scientist Award (TANSA) in the field of Engineering and Technology for the year 2007. Click here for Photographdescription

Fellow of National Academy of Engineering (FNAE) Click here description

Certificate of merit in appreciation of his valuable performance in publishing in journals of IF 4-5 during the year 2011, 2012

Fellow of Andhra Pradesh Akademi of Sciences (FAPAS), 2014 Click here photo(APAS)

Editorial Board Member of “Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association” Click here photo(JALCA editor)

Fellow of Royal society of Chemistry (FRSC), 2014 Click here photo(FRSC)

National and International Recognitions

technology News Story in -Environmental Science and Technology online News- on -Cleaner Leather tanning- from a scientific paper appeared in ACS Journal, Environ. Sci. Technol, 36, 1372-1376, 2002.Click here

Scientific paper appeared in ACS Journal, Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 4187-4194, 2002 had been reviewed in -Nature Science Update- on 2nd October 2002 Click here as well as The Hindu, Science & Technology 24th October 2002 .

Technology News Story in -Environmental Science and Technology online News- on -A significant Improvement in Leather Processing- from a scientific paper appeared in ACS Journal, Environ. Sci. Technol, 39, 3776-3783, 2005. Click here

A news item on -CLRI Develops a New Millennium Bio-Driven Leather Process- in CSIR News, 55, No. 12, 197-199, 30 June 2005. Click here

A news item on -A New Millennium Bio-Driven Leather Process for Clean Pathway- in Leather Magazine, CLE, India, Dec 2005. Click here

A news item on -Frontiers in Leather Processing: A Transposed Process - Beginning Where Conventional Process Ends-, Leather Magazine, CLE, India, Jan 2006. Click here

A News item in -American Chemical Society News Service-, Science, Technology, Physics, Space News, WebIndia News, Science Daily, Innovations Report on -Reverse Leather Process could Revolutionalize Leather Industry- from a scientific paper appeared in ACS Journal, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 1069-1075, 2006. Click here

A news item on -Biosorption of Chromium From Tannery Wastewater: An Approach for Chrome Recovery and Reuse- Leather Magazine, CLE, India, April 2006.Click here

A News item on -CLRI initiatives for Cleaner, Greener leather processing- in Financial Express, May 2007. Click here

A News item in -Chemistry & Industry-, Business Standarad and Daily India on a scientific paper appeared in SCI Journal, J Chem Technol Biotecnol, 82, 971-984, 2007 Click here

A News item in -The Hindu- on the achievement of NRDC award - 2007, Oct 2007. Click here

A News item in -Deccan Chronicle- on the achievement of IGPP award - 2009, June 2009. Click here

A News item in -Press Release- on the achievement of IGPP award - 2009.

A news item in -Current Science- on Enzymes and biotechnology for cleaner leather processing, No. 11, 96, June 2009 Click here

A news item in -Biotech News- on Leather Bioprocessing: A Greener Finish, Vol IV, No. 1, Feb 2009. Click here

A news item in nature India, on a paper published in J Phy. Chem. B, 113, 8983-8992, July 2009.

A news item on “Dr Raghava Rao Awarded Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar 2008” in CSIR News, 59, No. 15, 227-228, 15, August 2009.

A news item in nature India, on a paper published in J Phy. Chem. B, 113, 8983-8992, July 2009.Click here

A news item on “Dr Raghava Rao Awarded Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar 2008” in CSIR News, 59, No. 15, 227-228, 15, August 2009.Click here

A news item on “CSIR-CLRI Scientist conferred Fellowship of The Royal Society of Chemistry”, in CSIR News, 64, 215-216, 2014 Click here photo(CSIR news sep2014).

An article on “The Journey from a village as a Farmer’s son to fashion World as a scientist in Leather” in INAE News Letter, V (3), March 2014 Click here photo(Mystory)

Significant Achievements
List of Prominent Achievements
  1. B.M.Das Memorial Gold Medal for securing 1st Rank in M.Tech.
  2. 1awaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund Award for securing 1st Rank in M.Tech.
  3. Mrs.Kannamal Krishnaswamy Memorial Prize for securing 1st Rank in M.Tech.
  4. I Prize for the Poster presentation at 22nd TGT, CLRI, Madras, Feb. 1987.
  5. II Prize for the Poster Presentation at 22nd TGT, CLRI, Madras, Feb. 1987.
  6. III Prize for the Presentation in the Seminar Competition at CLRI during CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, Madras, Sept. 1987.
  7. III Prize for the presentation in the Seminar Competition at CLRI during CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, Madras, Sept. 1988.
  8. Sulabh International II Prize for the best paper presentation during the Annual Conference of Indian Association for Environment Management at IIT, Kanpur, Nov.1989.
  9. I Prize for the poster presentation at 25th TGT, CLRI, Madras, Jan. 1990.
  10. I Prize for the poster presentation at 27th LERIG, CLRI, Madras, Jan. 1992.
  11. Hari Om Ashram Prerit Shri.S.S.Bhatnagar Research Award for the Prevention of Water Pollution - 1991, CSMCRI, Bhavnagar, Sep. 1993.
  12. Special Laboratory Project under CLRI Special Grants
  13. AISHTMA Platinum Jubilee National Award 1995 for Ecological Sustainability of Indian Leather Industry, 31st LERIG 1996, Chennai, India.
  14. Is a LEAD Associate from India,1996.
  15. Environmental Award 2003 for the Best Research Paper in Environmental Science & Technology from Department of Environment, Government of Tamil Nadu.
  16. Member of the Environmental Research Committee under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India (2003-2006)
  17. Burhani Foundation - NEERI- Award 2001 (Innovation in Environmentally Sound Technology)-April 2004.
  18. Biotech Product, Process Development and Commercialization Award-2005, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, May 2005.
  19. J Sinha Roy Memorial Award for the best article published in JILTA for the year 2004 on the 55th Foundation Day Celebrations of ILTA, August 2005.
  20. Best poster presentation on -Use of Proteinous Wastes from Leather Industry as Adsorbents for the Removal of Dyes from Wastewaters- during CSIR Foundation Day Celebrations, Sep 2005.
  21. Certificate of merit for his accomplishments in publications and awards during the year 2004-2005, Sep 2005.
  22. NRDC and WIPO award for the invention on -A high performance polymeric syntan for ecobenign chrome tanning- - May 2007.
  23. Certificate in appreciation of his valuable performance in IF aggregate for his publications during the year 2006, Sep 2007.
  24. Certificate of Merit Award for the CSIR Leadership Development program for middle to senior level leaders, March 2008.
  25. WIPO award for the invention on -A high performance polymeric syntan for ecobenign chrome tanning- - May 2008.
  26. Certificate in appreciation of his valuable performance in IF aggregate for his publications during the year 2007, Sep 2008.
  27. Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Purashkar Award for Environmental Protection, MoEF, June 2009.
  28. Certificate of Merit for his accomplishments in publications and awards during the year 2008, Sep 2009.
  29. CSIR-DAAD Fellow 2008, Reutlingen University, Germany Oct-Dec 2009.
  30. Certificate in appreciation of his valuable performance in IF aggregate for his publications during the year 2009, April 2010.
  31. Tamil Nadu Scientist Award (TANSA) in the field of Engineering and Technology for the year 2007, Aug 2010.
  32. Elected as Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering (FNAE), Jan 2011.
  33. Certificate in appreciation of his valuable performancein publishing in journals of IF 4-5 during the year 2011, April 2012.
Student Awards
  1. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the students for the best B.Tech Project Work on -Studies on the Recovery and Reuse of Chromium from Spent Semi Chrome Liquors-, Jan 2000.
  2. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the student for the best M.Tech Project Work on -Studies on the use of zirconium Oxychloride as a Tanning Agent-, Jan 2003.
  3. Best poster presentation on -Effect of zirconium(IV) complexes on the thermal and enzymatic stability of type I collagen- Fifth National Symposium in Chemistry under the Auspices of CRSI, Chennai, Feb 2003.
  4. Innovation Potential of Students Project Award-2004- Doctoral Level for the Best Thesis -Approaches Towards Zero Discharge Tanning Methods- by Indian National Academy of Engineering (INAE), Dec 2004.
  5. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the student for the best B.Tech Project Work on -Development of Natural Garment Leathers: A Metal-Free Approach-, Jan 2005.
  6. Aquaguard Young Scientist Award 2005 for the best poster presentation during the National Conference on Frontiers in Environmental Sciences and Engineering in India, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Sep 2005..
  7. Best paper award for the B.Tech students under Students Charter for Emerging Technologies during CHEMCON-05, Organized by IIT-G, Dec 2005.
  8. Young Scientist Award in Environmental Sciences from ISCA to the Ph.D student Mr R Aravindhan for the best paper presentation on -Dye House Wastewater Treatment Through Wet Peroxide Oxidation Using Cu-Exchanged Y Zeolite Catalyst- during the 93rd Indian Science Congress, Hyderabad, Jan 2006.
  9. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the studenst for the best B.Tech Project Work on -An Integrated Approach Towards the Manufacture of Upper Crust from Cow hides-, Jan 2006.
  10. I Prize for the best paper presentation on -Enzymatic Removal of Melanin in Enzyme Based Dehairing and Fibre Opening- during the 40th LERIG, CLRI, Jan 2006.
  11. II Prize for the best paper presentation on -Zeolite encapsulated Copper Schiff base complex catalyzed oxidation of dyes in the presence of H2O2- during the 40th LERIG, CLRI, Jan 2006.
  12. I Prize for the best paper presentation in science category on -Zero Formaldehyde Syntan- during the 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Jan 2008.
  13. I Prize for the best paper presentation in applied science on -Phytoremediation of Chromium from Tannery Wastewater Polluted Land- during the 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Jan 2008.
  14. III Prize for the best paper presentation in science category on -Eco-benign solutions for Reduction of TDS in Tanning Sector- during the 42nd LERIG, CLRI, Jan 2008.
  15. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the student for the best B.Tech Project Work on “Studies on the Development of Scent Infused Leathers”, Jan 2010.
  16. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the student for the best B.Tech Project Work on “A Novel High End Composite Material From Natural Fibers”, Jan 2010.
  17. Mecca Harzi Abdul Majid Sahib Endowment Award to the student for the best M.S Project Work on “Studies on the influence of scleraldehyde on collagen”, Jan 2011.
  18. LCMA Award to the student for the best B.Tech Project Work on “Studies on imparting special characteristics to leather and use of solid waste for manufacture of composites” Jan 2011.
  19. First prize for best peper presentation on “Greener Product for Greener Environment” in National Conference on Green Chemistry held at Presidency College, Chennai June 2012.
  20. First prize for best peper presentation on “Preparation of Eco-Benign Retanning Agent from Raw Trimmings” during CLRI Foundation day, April 2012.
  21. LCMA Award to the student for the best BTech Project Work on “Studies on imparting thermochromic property to leather” Jan 2013.
Significant Contributions in the Relevant Field
  • The researcher has made significant contributions in eco-benign tanning in leather processing through the development of cost-effective and environmentally sustainable technologies. He also gained critical and important leads towards causing a paradigm shift from chemical to bio-based leather processing. He has attempted an integrated solution to environmental problems in leather processing from first principles employing biotechnological tools. The scientific merit of the researcher rests in the understanding of leather science and technology through fundamental changes in leather making towards near zero waste tanning methods to meet the environmental challenges of the leather industry. The major R&D contributions of the researcher are
    • Chrome management in leather processing
    • Biobased leather processing
    • Cleaner processing
    • Secured utilization of solids waste
    • Zero discharge concepts
    • Bioaccumulation of chromium from wastewaters
    • Development of eco-benign leather chemicals
    • Natural coloration of Leather
    • Renovation technologies in leather processing
    • Wastewater treatment through bio-adsorption
    • Molecular level understanding of tanning
  • The researcher has made significant contributions to combat chromium pollution in tanning industry through the development of cost effective and environmentally sustainable technologies. This resulted in the development of a high exhaust chrome tanning salt and a near zero waste chrome tanning methodology. The scientific merit of the development of technology rests in the directed synthesis of the tanning salt and development of a safe application strategy. The major R&D outcomes of his contributions are
    • a commercially viable high exhaust chrome tanning salt
    • improved chrome recovery/reuse technology
    • closed pickle-tan loop for a near zero waste method and
    • application of membrane process for regain and reuse of chromium
  • A comprehensive solution to the problem of chrome management in tanneries has now been achieved.
High Exhaust Chrome Tanning Through Design Alterations
    The relatively low absorption of chromium in conventionally employed tanning salts has been traced to the presence of a low affinity cyclic tetrapositive tetrameric chromium species in basic chromium sulphate (BCS) salts. It has been demonstrated experimentally that the protein binding ability of various species contained in basic chromium sulphate salts varied significantly. The structure affinity studies have established that the poor affinity of the tetramer is due to the poor thermodynamic affinity and high kinetic lability. Through designed alterations in the method of manufacturing of BCS, the formation of such a low affinity species has been avoided. The resulting product exhibits an uptake of chrome salts to more than 80% during tanning. The technology has been commercialized.
Secured Chrome Management: A Step Forward
    The researcher has demonstrated the usefulness of controlling various factors in the chrome recovery methodology, a wealth from waste approach. An improved process technology has been developed and delivered to many commercial tanneries in India. The researcher has standardized a semi-continuous chrome recovery system based on sodium carbonate for large volumes of solutions with low chromium concentrations. A process plant with a capacity of 70 m3 is fully operational in a tannery in Tamil Nadu and this represents a landmark in better management of chromium. The researcher has developed a method for the recovery of chromium from the waste chrome-vegetable composite wastewaters. The bioaccumulation of chromium using seaweed forms a new dimension in the recovery and reuse of chromium. The researcher has developed a minimum waste pickle-tan closed loop system, which provides complete utilization of chromium. The researcher has made significant contributions in the innovation as well as implementation of chrome management methodology in tanneries around India [Burhani Foundation - NEERI Award 2001 for Innovation in Environmentally Sound Technology. This technology is another milestone in the framework of cleaner production in tanneries. The researcher has also developed a viable method for the removal of vegetable tannins from wastewaters. The researcher-s contribution in chrome recycling has led to the adoption of water conservation methods in tanning industry.
New Generation Tanning Agents: A Way Forward
    The researcher has also made important contributions in the development of new generation mineral tanning agents based on zirconium, iron, silica, aluminium, zinc, THPS and formaldehyde free syntans. The usefulness of these products in leather processing has been demonstrated. Formaldehyde free chrome tanning and polymeric syntans have been commercialized. The researcher has developed a pickle-less chrome tanning process using a formaldehyde free polymeric syntan. The process provides leathers having acceptable quality and reduces not only TDS but also chromium in the effluent. This work on a new integrated ecobenign chrome tanning method is a landmark in cleaner and zero waste tanning technologies (NRDC Award 2007). The researcher has demonstrated the influence of temperature on the formation of Cr(VI) in chrome salt as well as chrome tanned hide powder.
Coloring Leathers Naturally- Gains Importance
    The conventional dyeing operation chiefly employs dyes having cancer-causing arylamines for coloring leathers. The intrinsic nature of the product lends itself to form variety of colors when treated with a variety of vegetable tannins, which are already used as retanning agents in post tanning operations. For instance, when chromium-iron tanned leathers are treated with myrobalan extract, a deep black color is imparted to the final leathers. An original contribution has been made by the development of a process for coloration of leather without the use of synthetic dyes and pigments by the development of color through a charge transfer pathway involving vegetable tannins employed widely in leather processing. The use of natural dyes for the generation of different shades with good light fastness on leather have been made. A shade card has been created for the usefulness of the industry.
Enzymes based Dehairing and Fibre opening: A Pathbreaking Approach
    The use of enzymes as alternative to sulfide in dehairing has been attempted previously for reducing solid, liquid and gaseous discharges; but the process has defied application of enzyme only methods for removal of hair and opening of fibres. The lead gained by the researcher using enzyme only process represents a breakthrough, which has been well received [Editorial in Nature Science Update on a paper published in ACS Journal Environmental Science & Technology, 36, 2002, 4187-4194 as well as The Hindu, Science & Technology 24th October 2002] and [Technology News Story in Environmental Science and Technology online News on a paper published in Environ. Sci. Technol, 39, 2005, 3776-3783]. The researcher-s contribution in enzyme based fibre opening process is a path breaking approach leading to a paradigm shift from chemical to bio processing [Biotech Award 2005 from Department of Biotechnology, GoI]. This methodology is gaining commercial importance. The researcher has now developed a bio-tanning agent for the stabilization of collagen matrix through bio-tanning process. This would result in complete transformation of chemical based leather processing into a bio-driven towards the development of biodegradable leathers.
First Attempt in Narrow pH Leather Processing
    The researcher has also developed a leather processing technique for tanning skins/hides without deliming and pickling processes. The process envisages the use of lyotropic agents for opening up the fibre bundles and employs a pickleless chrome tanning system in a narrow pH range (4.0-8.0). Thereby, the process claims an environmental benefit of reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total solids (TS) loads by 67 and 64 %, respectively. The developed process claims substantial reduction in water and time requirement as well.
Biomediated Integrated Leather processing: A New Millennium Approach
    The process rationale designed by the researcher has recognized that the logic of conventional leather processing employs a -Do-Undo- principle. The researcher has developed approaches to overcome these inefficiencies through integrated and path breaking alternatives. The researcher has revamped the processing sequence and developed biomediated three step tanning process, which has been accepted for worldwide patent through US and PCT. Integration of wet finishing processes has also been successfully developed for making upper and garment leathers. This success story led the researcher to design and develop processes for integrating tanning and wet finishing.
Reverse Leather Processing Through Fundamental Changes: A New Direction for Clean and Green Tanning
    The researcher has developed anew dimension leather processing through revamping the conventional leather process sequence (Tamil Nadu Scientist Award (TANSA) - in Engineering and Technology for the year 2007). The researcher-s contribution in the development of reverse leather process through fundamental changes could revolutionalize the tanning industry [A News item in -American Chemical Society News Service- on a scientific paper published in ACS Journal, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 1069-1075, 2006]. The methodology has been employed for different end products manufacturing. Through scientific collaboration with Texas Tech, Military glove leathers have been made from sheep skins through reverse leather processing methodology.
Utilization of Solid Waste for the Removal of Toxic Effluents
    Due to stringent regulations on the discharge of chrome bearing wastes, the researcher has been involved in the effective utilization of chrome shavings as an adsorbent for the removal of vegetable tannins from wastewaters as well as a reducing agent in the manufacture of basic chromium sulfate. As an approach towards effective utilization of solid waste for the removal of liquid waste, the iron adsorbed fleshings have been used for the removal of chromium(VI). The usefulness of sodium alginate beads for the removal of dyes and catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of anionic dyes from tannery wastewaters has also been successfully demonstrated by the researcher [Young Scientist Award to my student in Environmental Sciences from ISCA, 2006]. The recovery of value added biomaterials from the tannery wastewaters through aqueous two phase system has been standardised.
Salt Free Preservation Methods
    The researcher has developed slat free preservation methods based on PEG and Scleraldehyde to meet the environmental challenges of the leather industry. Conventional wet salting method of preservation contributes to about 40% of the total solids content of the wastewaters, whereas polyethylene glycol (PEG) based preservation method avoids the usage of salt thereby reducing the TDS load in the wastewaters. Scleraldehyde, an oxidized schizophyllan has been investigated to possess effective antibacterial properties and can be used as a biopreservative for preservation of raw hides and skins.
Natural Garment Leather- A Metal Free Approach
    Growing concerns over the toxicity of chromium and its influence on the health of customers using chromium tanned garment leathers has forced the leather industry to search for alternative tanning agents. The researcher has developed a vegetable tanned garment leather avoiding the indiscriminate use of vegetable tannins and subsequent stripping prior to retanning and fatliquoring. It has been found that an 8% offer of wattle for tanning provides better physical and organoleptic properties. A polyamide based retanning system was found to offer better perspiration and organoleptic properties.
Development of Multifunctional Syntan
    A need has been sensed to develop products for retanning, which are devoid of phenols, formaldehyde and neutral salts. In this direction the researcher has developed a multifunctional syntan; a product developed from solid wastes and biodegradable natural materials as an alternative to conventional phenol-formaldehyde based products in retanning for upper leathers. The product provides a synergistic effect on the leather as compared to the unifunctional properties offered by conventional phenol–formaldehyde syntans.
Sesuvium portulacastrum for Phytoremediation and Preservation
    The leather processing industry is known to be associated with the generation of liquid waste with high total dissolved solids (TDS), in particular salinity. Sesuvium portulacastrum a perennial halophyte has been used for the accumulation of NaCl present in tannery wastewater and the harvested plant was reused for preservation of hides and skins.
Rationalized leather processing
    The researcher has developed a rationalized leather processing involving salt-free curing, lime and sulfide-free beam-house process and post-tanning followed by tanning employing a reverse leather-processing technique. The rationalized leather process reduces the usage and discharge of chemicals and also enjoys a significant reduction in pollution loads. This work on eco-efficient rationalized leather processing is gaining importance (A news item in “Chemistry & Industry” appeared in J Chem Technol Biotecnol, 82, 971-984, 2007).
Green chemistry approach in leather processing
    The researcher has demonstrated for the first time the concept of green chemistry in leather processing using atom economy (the conversion efficiency of a chemical process in terms of all atoms involved) as a tool for different chrome tanning methods. An atom economy of only 29% was obtained for the conventional chrome tanning system, whereas pickle-less chrome tanning method provides the maximum atom economy of about 57%.
Understanding the Mechanism of Tanning through First Principles
    The researcher has made seminal contributions in further additions of knowledge by providing a molecular insight into tanning. He demonstrated experimentally that the protein binding ability of various species contained in basic chromium sulfate salts varied significantly. He has also contributed to the understanding of the interaction of collagen like peptides with various tanning molecules through molecular modeling approaches. The work on the stabilization of collagen through L to D transformation has gained recognition (A news item in “Nature India”).
Seminal Contributions in Leather Science and Technology
    He is an author of a large number of papers (205) in SCI journals and holds 17 patents including 7 granted in the USA. The research papers are well cited with a citation index of 2003 and h index of 24. He has developed a basket of technologies and transferred about 15 technologies to the industry. He is an honorary Professor of Department of Leather Technology of Anna University, He is a Fellow of the International LEAD-INDIA Programme, Member of Environmental Research Committee (2003-2006), MoEF, GoI, Life Member of several reputed societies like ILTA, CRSI, ISCA and ALFA and member of SLTC and ALCA. His work has been recognized by professional bodies through many important awards and election to the Fellowship of Indian National Academy of Engineering (FNAE). The originality and novelty of the contributions of the researcher in leather science have come to be acclaimed among the thought leaders in the area of research.
My Associates

 

Dr T Ramasami, Mentor
Former Secretary, DST, GoI

Dr Balachandran Unni Nair, Associates
Chief Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr A B Mandal, Associates
Outstanding Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr V Subramanian, Associates
Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr B Chandrasekaran, Associates
Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr K J Sreeram, Associates
Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Ms N Nishad Fathima , Associates
Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr Aruna Dhathathreyan, Associates
Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India

Dr P Thanikaivelan Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India (First Ph.D Student)

Dr B Madhan Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India (Second Ph.D Student)

Dr S Saravanabhavan Manager R&D
Tata Exports, Dewas (Third Ph.D Student)

Dr R Aravindhan Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India (Fourth Ph.D Student)

Mrs Swarna V Kanth Scientist
CLRI, Chennai, India (Sixth Ph.D Student)

Dr V Punitha
INSPIRE Teaching Faculty (Seventh Ph.D Student)

Dr Chitra Kalyanarama
Senior Technical officer CLRI, Chennai, India (Eighth Ph.D Student)

Dr Elnaeim Musa
University of Bahri Khartoum, Sudan(Fifth Ph.D Student)

Dr Ivy Kanungo
Assistant Professor GCELT, Kolkata (Ninth Ph.D Student)

Mr GC Jayakumar
(Tenth Ph.D Student)

Ms Aafreen Fathima Mr M Sathish, Ms R Sathya, Mr A Jaya Prakash, Mr P Balasubramanian, Mr ET Devakumar, Mr M Chandra Bose(Ongoing Ph.D Students)