For Further Information Please Contact

Head, Business Processes Division,
CLRI, Adyar, Chennai 600 020.
Tel.:+91 44 2491 5238
email : e-mail :bpdclri@yahoo.com;
bpd@clri.res.in

Waste Utilization

A Novel Reconstituted Leather Sheet And A Process For The Preparation Thereof
Disclosed herein is reconstituted leather sheet prepared by application of binder on to the packed leather fiber followed by acid treatment, whereby a continuous sheet is produced. The sheet exhibits very good mechanical properties. It finds potential application for utilization of the solid leather wastes generated by tanneries or used leather products to make value added consumer items of low price range. The sheet material obtained by this process can be used for making different consumer goods including children footwear, chappal uppers, light leather materials like purses, valets, and key chain holding material etc. Thus, a certain value addition is ensured for benefits to consumer product industries. Indian Patent application no. 3805Del2013.

Process for the Preparation of Bioorganic Manure from Proteinaceous Solid Wastes
The process provides an improved method of vermicomposting to convert the proteinaceous matter into bio-manure in significantly less time with no emission of toxic gas. The process essentially relates to microorganism mediated hydrolysis followed by catalytic oxidation using activated carbon and subsequent composting using earthworms. It is an eco-benign option for economical utilization of proteinaceous wastes for enormous application in irrigation.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 2513DEL2011).

A Novel Slurry Seal Mix for Road construction and a Process for the Preparation thereof
A new slurry seal mix for road construction has been prepared using collagenous materials obtained from leather industry, thereby replacing partially or even fully such dry aggregate as sand, used in conventional Slurry Seal mix. The salient feature of the new Slurry Seal mix is that it provides better reinforcement. The process suggests an effective method for economical utilization of leather waste, which would otherwise cause environmental problem in respect of solid waste disposal.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 0595DEL2012).

An Improved Denture Substrate compositionand a Process for the Preparation thereof
The process provides an option to use collagen material for making denture substrate with improved physical and mechanical properties. It is envisaged to find enormous application potential in providing value added products from waste collagenous substrates.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 0081DEL2012).

A novel electrically conducting composite and a process for the preparation thereof
Currently, the proteinaceous wastes are being used in certain low value applications. Hence, the present invention aims at developing a process for the preparation of conducting composites from skin and leather wastes, which can be used in a variety of high value applications. The untanned or tanned proteinaceous wastes were pyrolyzed at different temperatures under inert atmosphere to prepare carbonaceous materials. The untanned or tanned proteinaceous wastes were also used as biopolymeric source from which collagen or chromium-collagen complex were extracted using mild acids. To this extracted biopolymers, different eco-benign polymers were added along with the carbonaceous materials prepared from proteinaceous sources. The formed homogenous mixtures were converted to composites using known procedures. The prepared materials have been studied for their conducting properties apart from other physico-chemical properties. It was found that the developed composites have improved conducting properties in the range of 105 to 10-12 S/cm. The developed process has several advantages compared to the previous inventions. The conducting composites can be used in medical, biotechnology, electronic and related industries.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 209DEL2011).

A process for separation of inorganic salts from a mixture containing inorganic salts and organic matter for industrial applications
Mixed inorganic and organic blended salt solution/dried salts generated from textile, dye & dye intermediate manufacturing industries, chemical processing industries and reverse osmosis processes are in unusable form. The presence of organic matter reduces the separation of individual salts. In the new process technique, separation of salts is carried out by four sequential steps. In the first step, hydrogen chloride gas is passed in to the mixed salt solution followed by precipitation and recovery of salt. In the second step, supernatant obtained from the first step is treated with mesoporous activated carbon at required air, temperature and pressure. In the third step, pH of the treated water is adjusted to near neutral and the salts precipitate during pH adjustment are collected separately. In the final step, the supernatant obtained from the above step is evaporated and the resulting dried salts are collected separately.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 1898DEL2010).

An improved process for the preparation of sheets from proteinous sources
This invention relates to a method of utilizing skin and leather wastes obtained from leather and related industries. Currently, these wastes are either disposed or used in a variety of ways including forming sheets. However, the previous methods of sheet formation could not provide sheets with desired strength as well as flexibility. Hence, the present invention aims at developing a process for preparing sheets from skin and leather wastes, which can be used for high value applications. The skin or leather wastes have been partially hydrolyzed and degraded using acids under heat and mechanically grinded until solid pasty mass is obtained. To this mass, plasticizer, polymers and additives have been added and mixed finely. The formed solid mass is transferred in to glass plate and pressed to form sheets. The prepared sheets have been studied for physical and mechanical properties such as flexibility, strength, tearability, etc. It was found that the developed sheets have reasonable tensile and tear strength as well as flexibility. The developed process has several advantages compared to previous inventions such as eco-friendliness, ease of production, cost effectiveness and can be used in wide range of industrial applications.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 1718DEL2009). .

A process for the preparation of a mixture of carbonaceous products from proteinaceous materials
Proteinaceous materials such as the byproducts obtained from the leather industry are pyrolyzed under controlled conditions of temperature and atmosphere and subsequently cooled to obtain a mixture of carbonaceous products. The products find enormous application in wide ranging industrial areas. An organic liquid, which is optionally obtained as byproduct, also finds significant industrial application.
The process provides an eco-friendly solution for effective utilization of the proteinaceous solid wastes generated by different industries. Thus it is envisaged to find enormous potential application in slaughter house, meat packing, leather and related industries in providing a green solution for utilizing the skin, hide and leather co-products. The carbonaceous product of the invention finds numerous industrial applications as ingredient for making rubber tires, reinforcement in composites, dry lubricant. They are also envisaged to have enormous application in the areas relating to nanotechnology, electronics, optics, material sciences and allied fields. Moreover, the organic liquid produced optionally as a byproduct of the process provides a rich source of amino acid-peptide mixture, which may find application in biotechnological industries.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 1625Del2007; Patent pending).

A process for the preparation of protein hydrolysate from proteinaceous chrome wastes
The invention relates to a microbial process for the preparation of hydrolysate from proteinaceous chrome wastes for industrial applications. The resulting hydrolysate finds potential application in leather processing industry as filler as well as retanning agent. The product may also be used as animal feed supplement. It may even find application as potential ecofriendly biofertilizer.
The unique feature of the invention lies in providing a microbial process capable of hydrolyzing proteinous matter even in the presence of chromium, which would otherwise have created major environmental problem, thereby not only providing a solution to a major problem of disposal of proteinaceous chrome wastes, but also suggesting an eco-friendly option of creating wealth out of waste. An additional feature of the invention is that the chrome cake, produced as a byproduct of the process, may be reused for chrome tanning as well as retanning in leather industry. The invention has been applied for patent protection.(Indian Patent application no. 1575Del1999, Patent pending).

A Process for the preparation of a novel conducting fibrous composite for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications
An effective method for economical utilization of industrial wastes of fibrous matrix such as leather splits, trimmings, textile materials, paper boards etc., is provided whereby a conducting fibrous composite is produced for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. The process essentially relates to polymerizing selected monomer, capable of forming into conjugated polymeric structure, onto the fibrous matrix itself under controlled conditions. This is in contrast to the conventional processes, where a conducting material is incorporated into a preformed polymeric material involving additional processes like compounding and moulding, to prepare flexible, light weight electro conducting fibrous composites for effective EMI shielding purpose. Thus the present process provides a simple and economical option to utilize the fibrous industrial wastes for preparing value added products.
The invention has been applied for patent protection.(Indian Patent application no. 1283Del1999, Patent pending).

A process for the preparation of a Parchment like material.
The product is essentially a thin, flexible as well as transparent sheet resembling a parchment and is prepared from materials like chrome shavings, trimmings from skin/hide, which are subjected to alkali hydrolysis under controlled conditions. The paste is treated with plasticiser/crosslinker and is finally cast into sheet, which is dried to get parchment like material. The sheet finds application in the products industry for fabrication of several decorative/fancy items like puppets, lamp shades, chandeliers, wall hangers, table tops etc. The material can also be used for effecting reinforcement in leather goods industry. The unique feature of the process is that the acidified chrome solution, generated as a byproduct, can be reused in leather processing, thereby suggesting a viable method for chrome recovery/reuse in leather processing industry. Moreover, the material is not prone to insect damage or putrefaction. Thus the process essentially suggests an eco-friendly as well as economical method of utilization of the chrome shavings, which would otherwise add to disposal problem, to make value added products, thereby creating wealth out of waste.
The process has been applied for Patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 300DEL2001; Patent pending).

A process for the preparation of leather like sheet and the sheet prepared thereby
The invention provides a process for the preparation of leather like sheet using fabric and solid wastes generated during leather manufacture. The process has enormous potential application in leather processing industry for utilizing some of the solid wastes for making value added product such as a sheet, which is envisaged to have application potential as excellent raw material in variety of consumer product industries. Thus the invention provides not only an economic option for effective utilization of the solid wastes generated in leather industry, but also a suitable cost effective material for making different consumer products.
The invention has been applied for Patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 752DEL2002;Patent pending)

A process for the separation of chromium from chrome tanned collagen material
Chrome tanned collagen material is subjected to alkali hydrolysis at a temperature of not less than 250 C and the separated alkali treated chrome collagen is treated with acid to recover chromium which is separated and is ready for reuse.
The invention has been applied for Patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 526DEL2004).

An improved process for the recovery of common salt from salt cured raw hides/skins for reduction of total dissolved solids in the effluents
A method is disclosed to treat salt cured hides/skins with saturated sodium chloride solution to ensure that the salt adhered to the skin settles down for subsequent separation as well as reuse. This ensures that the TDS of the leather processing effluent is significantly reduced. The process also provides a method to regenerate the contamination free saturated sodium chloride solution for subsequent use.
The invention has been applied for Patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 2421DEL2004).

A process for the preparation of dog chews
A process for the preparation of dog chew is provided whereby chrome shavings are subjected to alkali hydrolysis followed by fiber size reduction and subsequent drying and shaping. The resulting product finds potential application in the pet food industry, which is flourishing. Thus the process has enormous application in cottage or small-scale industries. The unique feature of the process is that it enables introduction of a novel feed item from the tannery solid waste, thereby supporting value addition.
The invention has been applied for patent protection (Indian patent application no. 665Del2006; patent pending).

A process for the preparation of cereals incorporated feed composite from animal fleshings.
Thermally degraded animal fleshings is mixed with cereals, adding optionally food preservative as well as taste supplement thereto. The mixture is shaped and baked to get cereals incorporated feed composite, thereby providing a cost effective option for the utilization of fleshings, a solid waste generated by the leather processing industry, to get value added animal feed product.
The invention has been applied for Patent protection (Indian Patent application no. 328DEL2004;Patent pending). The technology has been transferred to industry.

A sustainable landfill
A sustainable landfill for disposal of solid and sludge comprises rigid, monolithic, impermeable, horizontal and vertical liner to prevent leakage of leachate from landfill. Significant amount of solid wastes are generated by several processing industries such as chemicals, leather, textile. Commercial and household activities also generate huge solid wastes. The structure of the present invention may be used for the secured disposal of these solid wastes. Moreover, the structure may also be used as a secure landfill to dispose the sludge generated from industrial effluent treatment plants, sewage treatment plants. In other words, the structure finds enormous potential applications for eco-friendly secured disposal of sludge and solid wastes.

Sustainable landfill not only enhances the waste holding capacity by 3 times but also improvises the limitations associated in current practice in liner system. Horizontal liner is integrated with plurality of crests and troughs for collection of leachate in vertical direction. Arranging an array of troughs sloping towards sidewall not only enhances the leachate collection rate but also reduces the length of travel of leachate. Perforated segments inter-connected to the inner side of the vertical liner, enables to collect leachate in horizontal direction and reduce the leachate contact with waste.

The invention has been applied for patent protection in India (Indian Patent application no.125Del2006; Patent pending). The technology has also been transferred to multiple clients.

Ore residual waste
An Inorganic Blue Colorant And A Process For The Preparation Thereof
Disclosed herein is an inorganic blue colorant represented by formula AlxCoyNdzO3 where x is an integer in the range of 0.8-2.0, y is an integer in the range of 0.05-0.15 and z is an integer in the range of 0.1-0.6 for industrial applications exhibiting Near Infra Red (NIR) reflectance of 70-80% and solar reflectance of 50-55%. It is essentially a rare earth metal ion based oxide colorant which has the potential to reflect the solar radiation near infrared wavelength region leading to potential application as a cool blue colorant for various surface coating applications. The colorant finds enormous application in coating of building roof, automobile parts, plastics, ceramics and leather as a potential replacement to phthalocyanine colorants.
Indian Patent application no. 86Del2014

Disposal of Solid Wastes

A novel activated carbon and a process for the preparation thereof
Disclosed herein is a novel activated carbon exhibiting a feature of carbon and calcium oxide, prepared from limed animal fleshing. It finds application as filler material for tyre tread and rubber sole preparation. The product has the potential to replace carcinogenic carbon black, conventionally used in rubber industry, thereby providing a safer option of vulcanization for rubber product industry. Thus, the invention enables usage of bulk amount of solid fleshing waste generated by the tanning industry to make value added products. The activated carbon of the invention may also be used as adsorbent for removal of toxic metals from waste water. Indian Patent application no. is 1401DEL2015.


Blended leather fabric and a process for the preparation thereof
Disclosed herein blended leather fabric comprising 60-90% leather fiber reconstituted into blended material with other conventional fabric. It provides an opportunity for utilization of the solid leather wastes generated by tanneries in the form of leather blended fabrics to make value added consumer items of low price range. A process which involves a series of mechanical operations, for the preparation of the blended fabric is also disclosed. The blended fabric can be used for the preparation of suiting and shirting; dress materials, winter wear. Indian Patent application no. is 2416DEL2014.

A novel pellet fuel and a process for the preparation thereof
A novel pellet fuel comprising collagenous substance, organic matter, binder and plasticizer, exhibiting a calorific value in the range of 15000-30000 kJ/Kg is disclosed. A process for the preparation of the pellet from collagenous substance is also provided. The invention is envisaged to have enormous application in fuel industries as a source of energy. The product of the invention is envisaged to be a substitute for all conventional fuels. The invention provides an option to utilize the collagenous wastes generated by the leather processing industry for making a source of energy in the form of pellet fuel. Indian Patent application no. is 2352DEL2014.

Leather fibre epoxy nano composite material for industrial applications and a process for the preparation thereof
Disclosed herein is a novel Nano–composite composition comprising essentially of leather fibres from leather solid wastes such as Buffing dust; Epoxy polymer comprising of Epoxy resin and hardener and Nano–particles of Titanium–di–oxide or SiO2. It is prepared from defined particle size of leather waste fibres and Nano particles. Thus, it is envisaged to have enormous application as light weight construction material with requisite strength properties. Indian Patent application no. is 2893DEL2014.


For Further Information Please Contact

Head, Business Processes Division,
CLRI, Adyar, Chennai 600 020.
Tel.:+91 44 2491 5238
email : e-mail :bpdclri@yahoo.com;
bpd@clri.res.in